MCAT Psychology and Sociology Practice Test 2022 (59 Questions Answers)

MCAT Psychology and Sociology Practice Test 2022 (59 Questions Answers):  Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC) Medical College Admission Test (MCAT) Psychological, Social, and Biological Foundations of Behavior practice test questions answers. In addition, you can download the psychology and Sociology test in a printable copy of the PDF for better MCAT Test Prep & Review.

All of the questions on the MCAT Psychology and Sociology are in the multiple-choice format, which you have undoubtedly seen many times before. That means that for every question, the correct answer is right in front of you.

MCAT Psychology and Sociology Practice Test 2022

Test Name MCAT Practice Test 2022
Subjects Psychological, Social, and Biological Foundations of Behavior
Printable PDF N/A
Questions Format Multiple Choice Question
Total passage-based sets of questions  11 sets 4-6 questions per set
Total independent questions 15
Total Questions 59 Questions
Time Limit: 95 Minutes

Questions 1–4 are not associated with any passage.

Q1. Alfred is looking through a telescope with one eye closed watching sailboats enter a harbor. He is able to tell that a 20-foot boat has entered before a 30-foot catamaran. Which of the following cues is Alfred NOT able to use to judge relative distance?

  • A. relative size
  • B. interposition
  • C. retinal disparity
  • D. texture
View Correct Answer
 Answer Key: C  

Q2. With which theoretical paradigm is the German political philosopher Karl Marx MOST associated?

  • A. conflict theory
  • B. functionalism
  • C. symbolic interactionism
  • D. avoidance theory
View Correct Answer
 Answer Key:  A 

Q3. According to the bystander effect, which is MOST likely to be true in an emergency?

  • A. the greater the number of people present, the slower the response because of increased diffusion of responsibility
  • B. the greater the number of people present, the slower the response because of decreased diffusion of responsibility
  • C. the greater the number of people present, the faster the response because of increased diffusion of responsibility
  • D. the greater the number of people present, the faster the response because of decreased diffusion of responsibility
View Correct Answer
 Answer Key: A  

Q4. Studies examining altruism have shown that which of the following is true?

  • A. True altruism is common and found even between highly disparate individuals.
  • B. Altruism is more frequent in larger communities due to the diffusion of responsibility.
  • C. Altruism is more likely to occur between individuals who are likely to reciprocate assistance in the future.
  • D. Altruism is more likely to occur when participation is anonymous.
View Correct Answer
 Answer Key: C  

Questions 5–9 are based on the following passage.

Passage 1

Described by the psychologist B. F. Skinner, operant conditioning posits that learning can be understood by the interaction between reinforcers and stimuli. Studies from both comparative and human psychology have supported Skinner’s initial findings and expanded upon them.

The following figure shows a hypothetical example of various operant conditioning trials. During these trials, when a rat pressed a bar (as indicated by the hash mark on the graph), the behavior was reinforced by the presentation of a food pellet. The reinforcement schedule differs in each cell of the figure. Time is displayed on the x-axis and cumulative responses (bar presses) is displayed on the y-axis.

Q5. Based on the figure and the concept of operant conditioning, which type of response leads to an increased cumulative response and is MOST likely to result in a more persistent conditioned response?

  • A. fixed-ratio
  • B. variable-ratio
  • C. fixed-interval
  • D. variable-interval
View Correct Answer
 Answer Key: B  

Q6. What would MOST likely happen if, after the bar press, reinforcement was delayed (e.g., a time lag occurred before presentation of the food pellet)?

  • A. Conditioning would occur faster, and the slope in each cell of the graph would be steeper.
  • B. Conditioning would occur faster but only for the variable reinforcement conditions.
  • C. Conditioning would occur more slowly, and the slope in each cell of the graph would be flatter.
  • D. Conditioning would occur more slowly but only for the variable reinforcement conditions.
View Correct Answer
 Answer Key: C  

Q7. Imagine that you are watching a rat complete one of the tasks in the figure above. The rat is pressing the bar at a very high rate and takes a short break from pressing the bar each time the food pellet is delivered.What type of reinforcement schedule are you MOST likely watching?

  • A. variable-interval
  • B. variable-ratio
  • C. fixed-interval
  • D. fixed-ratio
View Correct Answer
 Answer Key: D  

Q8. Based on the ratio-reinforcing graphs, for both fixed and variable conditions, which of the following would you expect?

  • A. a predictable response rate for both and a lower resistance to extinction in the variable condition
  • B. longer breaks between bar presses for the fixed condition and a higher resistance to extinction
  • C. a predictable response rate for both and a greater resistance to extinction in the variable condition
  • D. longer breaks between bar presses for the variable condition and a lower resistance to extinction
View Correct Answer
 Answer Key: C  

Q9. Which of the following is true about conditioning?

  • A. In operant conditioning the stimulus behavior always precedes the reinforcement or punishment.
  • B. Operant conditioning can be used on animals while classical conditioning cannot be used.
  • C. Classical conditioning can explain all learning conditions, but operant conditioning is often used for simplicity.
  • D. In classical conditioning the reinforcement must never be paired with an unconditioned stimulus.
View Correct Answer
 Answer Key:  A 

Passage 2

In psychology, research examining moral development has typically focused on age-related differences. One such approach is Lawrence Kohlberg’s theory that individuals progress through three levels of morality: pre-conventional, conventional, and post-conventional. Kohlberg identified these levels based on participants’ reactions to stories that present moral dilemmas. For example, participants were asked to respond to a story in which a poor man named Heinz steals a drug for his wife who would die without the drug.

The following figure depicts the moral reasoning levels that Kohlberg found within each age group on his scale. In each graph, the proportion of responders tested who showed the indicated level of moral reasoning is shown on the y-axis and the age of the responders is shown on the x-axis.

Q10. If the data pattern steadied out at 17 years old, which level would be demonstrated by the greatest proportion of responders?

  • A. conventional
  • B. postconventional
  • C. preconventional
  • D. both postconventional and preconventional equally
View Correct Answer
 Answer Key:  A 

Q11. Based on the data shown, when does conventional morality develop?

  • A. before age seven
  • B. at age seven
  • C. between the ages of 7 and 16
  • D. after age 16
View Correct Answer
 Answer Key:  C 

Q12. Which of the following is true about Kohlberg’s theory of moral development?

  • A. All adults eventually reach the postconventional stage.
  • B. Moral judgments can be understood in context based on stages of moral development.
  • C. The majority of children are born with the ability to tell right from wrong based on constructed moral principles.
  • D. Morality is predefined with specific answers that align with societal laws.
View Correct Answer
 Answer Key:  B 

Q13. According to Kohlberg’s theory, which of the following is a characteristic of stage 3 morality?

  • A. basing decisions only to avoid punishment or reward
  • B. basing decisions on society’s rules and the avoidance of punishment
  • C. basing decisions on social approval of peers rather than on laws
  • D. basing decisions on personally constructed moral principles rather than on societal teachings
View Correct Answer
 Answer Key:  D 

Q14. James is a manager at a store. He sees a coworker temporarily abandon the checkout desk in order to help an elderly customer to her car. This act is a violation of company policy. James reports the coworker to corporate management for discipline. James is MOST likely in which stage of moral development?

  • A. postconventional
  • B. conventional
  • C. preconventional
  • D. adaptive
View Correct Answer
 Answer Key:  B 

Passage 3

       Researchers studying vision use various methods to investigate human perceptual experience. Research on spectral sensitivity of the rod receptors (scattered throughout the retina) and cone visual receptors (mainly concentrated in the fovea area of the retina) highlights the relationship between perception and physiology.

Signal detection methods have been used to measure the differences in how perception adjusts to low-light environments. Participant responses can be plotted based on sensitivity versus length of time in the dark. The dark adaptation curve can be plotted showing how rods and cones differ in their sensitivity to light over time. The following graph shows a plot of three calculated dark adaptation curves.

Q15. The dark adaptation curve can be plotted by asking participants to fixate on a specific point and then using signal detection methods with a test light. What is the MOST likely way that researchers would be able to isolate the responses of each receptor type, based on the physiology of the eye?

  • A. by using colored versus white lights to differentially activate the rods and cones
  • B. by changing the location of the test light from the focal point to the periphery
  • C. by asking participants to cover one eye while performing the comparison tasks
  • D. by alternating the brightness using flashing lights in order to preferentially activate one receptor type rather than the other
View Correct Answer
 Answer Key:  B 

Q16. Signal detection methods are used to plot the dark adaptation curve. Based on
these methods, what would be the threshold used for correctly detecting the presence of the test light?

  • A. A participant is considered to have detected the light if he or she can identify the comparison light presence 50% of the time.
  • B. A participant is considered to have detected the light if he or she can identify the comparison light presence 25% of the time.
  • C. A participant is considered to have detected the light if he or she can identify the comparison light presence 75% of the time.
  • D. Any time a participant identifies a light to be present, the light is considered to have been perceived.
View Correct Answer
 Answer Key: A  

Q17. Based on the dark adaptation curves, which of the following statements is true?

  • A. Rods are more sensitive than cones after 5 minutes in the dark.
  • B. Cones are more sensitive than rods after 15 minutes in the dark.
  • C. Rods are more sensitive than cones at the rod-cone break.
  • D. Rods are more sensitive than cones after 20 minutes in the dark.
View Correct Answer
 Answer Key:  D 

Q18. Which of the following statements is true?

  • A. Rods are responsible for color vision, which explains color sensitivity under low-light conditions.
  • B. Cones are responsible for color vision, which explains greater color sensitivity under low-light conditions.
  • C. Rods do not respond preferentially to wavelengths in the light spectrum, which explains why colors are not detectable in low-light conditions.
  • D. Both rods and cones respond to specific colors in the light spectrum; loss of color vision in dark conditions is the result of fewer photons of light.
View Correct Answer
 Answer Key: C  

Q19. Based on the research described above and the physiology of the eye, what is the most likely explanation for increased rod sensitivity after the rod-cone break?

  • A. Cones are poorer at light adaptation because large groups of them are connected to one interneuron.
  • B. Cones are better at light adaptation because they respond to specific wavelengths of light.
  • C. Rods are poorer at light adaptation because they are less prone to pigment bleaching.
  • D. Rods are better at light adaptation because large groups of them are connected to one interneuron.
View Correct Answer
 Answer Key: D  

Passage 4

Research has examined how the presence of others affects how humans behave in different social contexts. This research has examined performance for different types of tasks and has also evaluated how group size affects performance.

The following hypothetical data represents the amount of time an individual devotes to solving a long series of mathematical word problems before selecting an answer (regardless of accuracy of that answer). In this example, effort is measured by the amount of time spent working to solve a multistep word problem either using algebra or calculus. The time spent by the individual was measured for each type of task when performed alone and when performed in a group. In the graph, the number of minutes spent by the individual is shown on the y-axis and the math category is shown on the x-axis.

Q20. Based on the graph, which of the following statements is true?

  • A. The individual spent a longer amount of time solving calculus problems in a group compared to solving calculus problems alone.
  • B. The individual spent about the same amount of time solving calculus problems in a group relative to solving them alone.
  • C. The individual spent a longer amount of time solving algebra problems alone relative to solving them in a group.
  • D. The individual spent a longer amount of time solving algebra problems in a group compared to solving them alone.
View Correct Answer
 Answer Key: D  

Q21. Based on research examining group performance, which of the following terms
BEST explains why the individual spent less effort on solving calculus word problems when working as part of a group?

  • A. social facilitation
  • B. social loafing
  • C. deindividuation
  • D. bystander effect
View Correct Answer
 Answer Key: B  

Q22. Based on research examining group performance, which of the following terms
BEST explains why the individual spent more effort on solving algebra word problems when working as part of a group?

  • A. social facilitation
  • B. social loafing
  • C. deindividuation
  • D. bystander effect
View Correct Answer
 Answer Key: A  

Q23. What would you expect to be theMOST likely result if the complexity of the calculus
problems increased (e.g., doubled in length and number of steps)?

  • A. The individual would step up and expend more effort on solving the problems because he or she would feel more personally responsible.
  • B. The individual would reduce the amount of effort spent on solving the problems because he or she would assume that others would step up to complete the task.
  • C. The group would likely subdivide the problems into smaller tasks resulting in more individual effort overall.
  • D. The amount of effort would remain unchanged.
View Correct Answer
 Answer Key: B  

Q24. Based on research examining social loafing, which of the following is true?

  • A. The effort expended is the result of the participant’s perception of diffusion of responsibility.
  • B. The effort expended is influenced by the physical limitations that result from group work.
  • C. Effort coordination explains all differences in performance for group activities.
  • D. The effort expended is the result of expectations from others about an individual’s work in a group.
View Correct Answer
 Answer Key: A  

Passage 5

Understanding the various causes of psychological disorders is a central focus of research in psychology. Further, clinical psychologists must consider factors that influence the incidence rate and characteristics of clinical populations that they treat.

The following graphs depict data from a study by L. R. Snowden and F. K. Cheung, who examined demographic differences in the incidence rate of schizophrenia. The first figure shows the percentage rates for schizophrenia diagnosis among individuals admitted for psychiatric care who classified themselves as“African American,” White,” “Hispanic American,” or “Asian American and other.”


Rates of schizophrenia diagnosis for individuals admitted for psychiatric care by ethnicity

The following graph shows the percentage rates for mood disorder diagnosis among individuals admitted for psychiatric care, by the same ethnicity classifications.


Rates of mood disorder diagnosis for individuals admitted for psychiatric care by ethnicity

Q25. Based on this research, members of which ethnicity are MORE likely to be diagnosed with schizophrenia, and members of which ethnicity are MORE likely to be diagnosed with mood disorders, respectively?

  • A. White; Asian American and other
  • B. African American; Hispanic American
  • C. African American; White
  • D. Hispanic American; Hispanic American
View Correct Answer
 Answer Key: C  

Q26. Based on the data, which possible conclusion can be ruled out completely?

  • A. Ethnicity has no impact on the likelihood that an individual will experience a particular mental disorder.
  • B. Ethnicity is fully responsible for the likelihood an individual will experience a particular mental disorder.
  • C. Clinicians see no ethnicity differences in admittance rates for some disorders.
  • D. Clinicians often classify disorders based on existing biases.
View Correct Answer
 Answer Key: C  

Q27. What would be the BEST logical follow-up study to further examine the differences in diagnosis of mental disorders by ethnicity?

  • A. Measure the social and economic status and stress of each person diagnosed with schizophrenia and mood disorder.
  • B. Send the patients to a different facility to retest the diagnosis.
  • C. Compare the differences in diagnostic criteria and determine the amount of overlap between the diagnostic criteria for mood disorders and schizophrenia.
  • D. Investigate why mood disorders are underrepresented in the admission samples by conducting additional surveys.
View Correct Answer
 Answer Key: A  

Q28. Based on psychological research investigating the causes of schizophrenia, which of the following is NOT true?

  • A. Schizophrenia has a genetic component that can be inherited from biological parents, but genetic factors alone cannot account for the development of the disorder.
  • B. The production and activity of specific chemical substances in the brain have been found to be associated with schizophrenia.
  • C. Environmental factors contribute to the development of schizophrenia.
  • D. A person has a 100% chance of developing schizophrenia if both of his or her parents have schizophrenia.
View Correct Answer
 Answer Key: D  

Q29. The vulnerability-stress (a.k.a. diathesis-stress) model of schizophrenia is BEST exemplified by which of the following?

  • A. Themore stress to which a person whois genetically predisposed to schizophrenia is exposed, the greater the likelihood that person will experience a psychotic break.
  • B. Everyone becomes equally vulnerable to schizophrenia under high stress regardless of their genetic predisposition.
  • C. Only negative life stressors increase the likelihood of a psychotic break in genetically predisposed individuals, while positive life stressors do not increase vulnerability.
  • D. An individual is more vulnerable to schizophrenia if his or her biological family experiences stress because schizophrenia is so strongly based on genetics.
View Correct Answer
 Answer Key: A  

Passage 6

Psychologists have examined how love develops over time. Their research has typically attempted to divide love into different facets whose interrelationships change over time. One such model of love developed by Robert Sternberg is shown in the following diagram and graph.

Sternberg’s model has three components: commitment, intimacy, and passion, which in combination result in multiple types of love.


Sternberg’s model of love with changes that occur over time.

Q30. Based on the graph, which of the following is true?

  • A. Intimacy decreases over time.
  • B. Passion increases rapidly early and then increases slowly over time.
  • C. Commitment initially increases slowly; then it rapidly increases.
  • D. Intimacy decreases as passion increases.
View Correct Answer
 Answer Key: C  

Q31. According to Sternberg’s view of love, which of the following is true?

  • A. Passion is unnecessary and is abandoned over time.
  • B. Intimacy increases but is inherently the same as compassion.
  • C. Commitment is crucial and is positively correlated to relationship stability.
  • D. Passion is the most important facet for long-term love.
View Correct Answer
 Answer Key: C  

Q32. Which facet of love is characterized by intense emotion and includes tender sexual feelings?

  • A. romantic love
  • B. companionate love
  • C. commitment
  • D. intimacy
View Correct Answer
 Answer Key: A  

Q33. Which of the following statements about the types of love is MOST likely true?

  • A. Fatuous love and liking can coexist in this model.
  • B. Passion reaches a zenith early and then declines because you cannot like someone and be passionate about that person at the same time.
  • C. In order to succeed over the long term, a relationship must maintain consummate love.
  • D. Companionate love increases over time in long-term relationships.
View Correct Answer
 Answer Key: D  

Q34. Danna has been dating Mark off and on for the past two years. She enjoys the time she spends with him, but she considers him rather shallow. She still dates other people but has strong sexual feelings toward Mark. Danna is most likely experiencing which type of love?

  • A. commitment
  • B. companionate love
  • C. intimacy
  • D. infatuation
View Correct Answer
 Answer Key: D  

Passage 5

Student performance on tests has been investigated by sociologists as an indicator of how social structures influence learning. The following graph represents student performance by state on a standardized mathematics test called the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS). The average TIMSS scores and standard error were calculated and are displayed in the graph below. Average scores for each state are displayed individually, and the nationwide U.S. average is also shown as a separate data point. Benchmark (target) scores are also represented in the graph.

Q35. Which of the following statements is true about the data shown in the graph?

  • A. The majority of state average scores were below the national average.
  • B. The majority of state average scores were above the national average.
  • C. The majority of state average scores were above the high benchmark.
  • D. Half of the state average scores were above the national average and half were below.
View Correct Answer
 Answer Key: B  

Q36. Using the data in the graph, a sociologist is investigating how low-scoring states are attempting to improve their performance by incorporating historically low-performing groups into local programs and services. This approach is MOST closely related to which theoretical concept?

  • A. human theory
  • B. functionalism
  • C. symbolic interactionism
  • D. conflict theory
View Correct Answer
 Answer Key: D  

Q37. Which of the following BEST indicates one way a functionalist would interpret the data in the graph?

  • A. The data show that the states are equally able to reinforce the status quo in regard to their own state population.
  • B. The data show the historical inequities between various state populations.
  • C. The data show that education is effective in reinforcing the relative socioeconomic status (SES) status quo between various state populations.
  • D. The data show that performance indicators are not relevant.
View Correct Answer
 Answer Key: C  

Q38. In terms of the overall economy, teaching in the state school system is considered to be part of which level of production?

  • A. primary
  • B. secondary
  • C. tertiary
  • D. functional
View Correct Answer
 Answer Key: C  

Q39. Jimis a sociologist who works at a public policy centerin a state whereTIMSS scores are well above the national average. His group is concerned with maintaining the state’s lead in educational ranking in order to fend off competition from other states for high-skilled jobs. His policy center creates several initiatives to ensure that the state’s schools keep their high rank and reputation for quality. Jim is MOST likely from which theoretical background?

  • A. conflict theory
  • B. functionalism
  • C. symbolic interactionism
  • D. social adaptation theory
View Correct Answer
 Answer Key: B  

Passage 8

Studies collecting data on age distribution within populations have a long history in sociological research. The accompanying figure depicts the age distribution for males and females in Japan. The three graph “pyramids” show historical data for 1960 and 2010 and projections for 2060 based on current low birth rates. Each graph is separated into young, adult, and elderly populations.

Q40. Which conclusion can be drawn from the data in the figure?

  • A. The share of the elderly population in Japan will decrease over time relative to the rest of the population.
  • B. The share of the young population in Japan will remain largely unchanged over time relative to the rest of the population.
  • C. The share of the young population in Japan will increase over time relative to the rest of the population.
  • D. The share of the elderly population in Japan will increase over time relative to the rest of the population.
View Correct Answer
 Answer Key: D  

Q41. What might be a likely result of introducing a new “transitional youth” category to data projections for the years following 2010?

  • A. There would be more transitional youth in the population in 2060 than in 2010.
  • B. There would be fewer transitional youth in the population in 2060 than in 2010.
  • C. There would be no change in the number of transitional youth in the population in 2060 compared to 2010.
  • D. There would be a decrease in the share of the elderly population in 2060 because of the addition of a new category.
View Correct Answer
 Answer Key: B  

Q42. If immigration were increased over time to compensate for the low birth rate, which of the following would MOST likely occur?

  • A. Social and cultural characteristics would become more diverse across the population.
  • B. Social and cultural characteristics would become more uniform across the population.
  • C. Immigration would have a negligible impact because cultural groups tend not to change over time.
  • D. The age distribution structure within the population would remain unchanged.
View Correct Answer
 Answer Key: A  

Q43. If current age distribution trends continue in Japan, which of the following is likely in regard to the role of the elderly in society?

  • A. The elderly are likely to have less influence on public policy as their share of the population declines.
  • B. The elderly are likely to have more influence on public policy as their share of the population increases.
  • C. The influence of the elderly on public policy is likely to be about the same in the future as it is today.
  • D. The elderly are likely to have issues adapting to new societal norms and pressures.
View Correct Answer
 Answer Key: B  

Q44. If immigration were increased overtime to compensate for the low birth rate, and if the immigrants became socially and culturally integrated into the native population, which of the following would be true?

  • A. The racial composition of the native population would necessarily change.
  • B. The ethnicity of the overall population would change.
  • C. The racial composition of the immigrant population would necessarily change.
  • D. The ethnicity of the overall population would remain basically the same.
View Correct Answer
 Answer Key: D  

Passage 9

There are multiple reasons for racial and ethnic mental health treatment disparities in the United States. These differences have implications for mental health care. The following bar graph illustrates some of these disparities.

Q45. Which of the following is true based on the bar graph?

  • A. Black individuals are as likely as white individuals to have access to minimally adequate mental health treatment post-diagnosis.
  • B. Latino individuals are as likely as white individuals to have access to minimally adequate mental health treatment post-diagnosis.
  • C. White individuals are as likely as Latino individuals to be diagnosed with a mental illness.
  • D. White individuals are as likely as black individuals to be diagnosed with a mental illness.
View Correct Answer
 Answer Key: B  

Q46. George, an African American, was raised in surroundings of the lowest socioeconomic status (SES). By working very hard in school, he earned an associate’s degree in accounting. He began to take cocaine to keep up with his studies, and just before graduation began using heroin as well. He now experiences withdrawal without the drug and spends most of his time in efforts to obtain the drug. His student loans are coming due, but he has not been able to find a job because of his addiction. Based on the graph, what is the best explanation for why George is likely to continue to have an addiction problem and to remain in the lower SES?

  • A. culture of poverty theory
  • B. social reinforcement theory
  • C. social mobility
  • D. human capital
View Correct Answer
 Answer Key: B  

Q47. Lack of what form of capital is the likely primary barrier preventing George from seeking treatment and achieving social mobility?

  • A. human capital
  • B. financial capital
  • C. environmental capital
  • D. cultural capital
View Correct Answer
 Answer Key: B  

Q48. In addition to finances, what other barriers may prevent George from seeking treatment?

  • A. lack of mental health providers in his geographic area
  • B. stigma against seeking treatment
  • C. both of the above
  • D. neither of the above
View Correct Answer
 Answer Key: C  

Q49. Based on the bar graph, the individuals in which group are LEAST likely to receive treatment once they have received a mental health diagnosis?

  • A. black individuals
  • B. Latino individuals
  • C. white individuals
  • D. both Latino and black individuals
View Correct Answer
 Answer Key: A  

Passage 10

High levels of sustained stress have been studied by a number of researchers. Psychological stress can create escalations in the HPA axis that shift the body out of homeostasis.

An important theory describing the psychophysiological effects of stress was developed by the Austrian-Canadian endocrinologist Hans Selye. This theory posits a general adaptation syndrome (GAS) characterized by three stages: alarm reaction, resistance, and exhaustion.

Selye’s model is shown in the following figure. The three phases are shown in order from left to right with stress plotted on the y-axis from low to high.

Q50. Based on Selye’s general adaptation syndrome and your knowledge of stress physiology, which of the following is experienced during the alarm reaction stage?

  • A. Bodily resources are mobilized and metabolism speeds up.
  • B. Adaptability increases until it is depleted completely.
  • C. Psychological resources become more moderate and sustained.
  • D. People are irritable, impatient, and angry.
View Correct Answer
 Answer Key: A  

Q51. A person who is going through a divorce constantly complains about feeling tired, avoids family members who disapprove of the divorce, spends time with supportive friends, and engages in meditation in an effort to control feelings of irritation and anger. Which phase of GAS is the person MOST likely in, and how long might this condition last?

  • A. Shock; the reaction will only last for a few days.
  • B. Countershock; the reaction can persist for hours, days, or years.
  • C. Exhaustion; the reaction will last for only a few days.
  • D. Resistance; the reaction can persist for hours, days, or years.
View Correct Answer
 Answer Key: D  

Q52. Which of the following statements is true based on GAS theory?

  • A. Resistance reactions are not adaptive and should be avoided.
  • B. Resistance reactions are activities to reduce the impact of stress and avoid exhaustion.
  • C. Physiological exhaustion is a necessary stage for any stress response.
  • D. Physiological exhaustion results in increased stress.
View Correct Answer
 Answer Key: B  

Q53. An interpretation of the GAS theory posits that stressful life events occurring in combination can damage physical health. Extrapolating from the graph and integrating your knowledge of stress physiology, how would multiple simultaneous stressful events affect an individual?

  • A. Multiple stressors would allow a person to repeatedly restart the process in the alarm stage, which would help that person improve resistance to stress and avoid exhaustion.
  • B. Multiple simultaneous stressors may overwhelm an individual’s stress resistance activities and push him or her into the exhaustion stage more quickly.
  • C. It would not matter because individuals rarely encounter multiple stressors simultaneously.
  • D. Stressful life events are difficult to classify or study, so we cannot begin to guess how multiple stressors would affect people.
View Correct Answer
 Answer Key: B  

Q54. Jeremy was driving on a dark road at night when a deer suddenly ran out of the brush and narrowly missed his car. Jeremy realized that there were likely more deer along the road. With his heart pounding, he turned off the road and continued to a lighted expressway with high fences. According to Selye’s general adaptation syndrome theory, Jeremy was likely experiencing which of the following?

  • A. a resistance reaction
  • B. an alarm reaction
  • C. physiological exhaustion
  • D. autonomic rebound
View Correct Answer
 Answer Key: A  

Passage 11

Researchers have long studied human memory. In a classic series of studies, the German psychologist Hermann Ebbinghaus investigated the storage and recall of information in memory. Based on his findings, he developed the so-called forgetting curve, a way of illustrating the rate at which people forget the information they have learned. The forgetting curve has been studied in a variety of different environments and for a variety of different stimuli.

On day 1 of the memory research study, participants were asked to learn a list of items. Researchers then tracked the proportion of the list that the participants remembered as time passed. On day 2, some participants were asked to relearn the list. Again, the proportion remembered was tracked over time. On day 3, some participants were asked to relearn the list a second time, and the proportion they remembered was tracked over time. On day 4, some participants were asked to relearn the list a third time, and the proportion they remembered was tracked over time.

The data from this study produced the following set of forgetting curves. Each line represents the memory of the learned or relearned list. The proportion of the list remembered is shown on the y-axis (memory), and the time interval for forgetting is shown on the x-axis (time remembered in days).

Q55. Based on the graph, which of the following statements BEST characterizes forgetting?

  • A. Most forgetting occurs gradually over a long period of time.
  • B. Most forgetting occurs after only a few days.
  • C. Most forgetting occurs soon after information is learned.
  • D. Most forgetting occurs at a constant rate over time.
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 Answer Key: C  

Q56. The relearning periods shown in the graph indicate what about each relearning episode?

  • A. Relearning has no impact on the proportion of a list remembered over time.
  • B. Relearning reduces the proportion of a list remembered over time.
  • C. Relearning improves memory only following the first relearning episode.
  • D. Relearning increases the proportion of a list remembered over time.
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 Answer Key: D  

Q57. Which of the following statements is FALSE based on the data shown in the graph?

  • A. The greatest difference in retention levels occurs between learning time one and time two.
  • B. Relearning is positively correlated with the retention of information, but information loss still occurs over time.
  • C. Relearning must occur at least four times for optimal retention.
  • D. Relearning impacts the rate of forgetting only after several relearning episodes.
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 Answer Key: D  

Q58. Suppose that one summer you take a training course on the maintenance and service of a certain piece of complex machinery. At the end of the course, you take a qualifying test. If you retake the test every summer for the next few years, based on the graph, how would you expect to perform on the test?

  • A. Test performance would decline sharply at first but decline less and less in later years.
  • B. Test performance would decline gradually over the years and then stabilize.
  • C. Test performance would decline sharply at first and continue to decline rapidly until eventually, you were unable to remember anything at all.
  • D. Test performance would decline only slightly from year to year until eventually, you were unable to remember anything at all.
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 Answer Key: A  

Q59. Suppose that you have been asked to remember a series of passwords for online sites.You are not permitted to write them down but can study a list of the passwords once a week for several months. Each week you are asked to enter the passwords with no errors prior to studying the list. Based on the graph, how would you expect to perform each week?

  • A. There would be a sharp decline in your memory each week regardless of the number of times you studied the list.
  • B. There would be a gradual decline in your memory each week until the number of remembered passwords stabilized.
  • C. There would be a gradual decline in your memory each week regardless of the number of times you studied the list.
  • D. There would be a significant decline in your memory in the first week, but the decline would become less abrupt each week after you studied the list.
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 Answer Key: D  

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