GED Reasoning Through Language Arts Practice Test 2024

GED Reasoning Through Language Arts Practice Test 2024: Preparing for the GED Reasoning Through Language Arts (RLA) test 2024? You’re in the right place! This comprehensive guide will give you everything you need to know to ace the RLA section, including essential tips, practice resources, and test-taking strategies.

What is the GED Reasoning Through Language Arts Test?

The GED RLA test measures your reading, writing, and understanding of English. It assesses your ability to comprehend and analyze written texts, write clearly and effectively, and use standard English conventions. The test is divided into three sections: reading, writing, and an extended response (essay).

6

GED Reasoning Through Language Arts Test

GED Reasoning Through Language Arts Test
Total Questions: 24
Time Limit: N/A
Free GED Test - No Registration is required

 

1 / 23

Questions 1 through 8 refer to the following passage

Excerpt from A Popular Schoolgirl
by Angela Brazil

1 The Saxons were spending their summer holidays at a farm
near the seaside, and for the first time in four long years the
whole family was reunited. Mr. Saxon, Egbert, and Athelstane
had only just been demobilized, and had hardly yet settled down
to civilian life. They had joined the rest of the party at Lynstones
before returning to their native town of Grovebury. The six weeks
by the sea seemed a kind of oasis between the anxious period of
the war that was past and gone, and the new epoch that
stretched ahead in the future. To Ingred they were halcyon days.
To have her father and brothers safely back, and for the family to
be together in the midst of such beautiful scenery, was sufficient
for utter enjoyment. She did not wish her mind to venture outside
the charmed circle of the holidays. Beyond, when she thought
about it all, lay a nebulous prospect, in the center of which school
loomed large.

2 On this particular hot August afternoon, Ingred welcomed an
excursion in the sidecar. She had not felt inclined to walk down
the white path under the blazing sun to the glaring beach, but it
was another matter to spin along the high road till, as the fairy
tales put it, her hair whistled in the wind. Egbert was anxious to
set off, so Hereward took his place on the luggage-carrier, and,
after some back-firing, the three started forth. It was a glorious
run over moorland country, with glimpses of the sea on the one
hand, and craggy tors on the other, and round them billowy
masses of heather, broken here and there by runnels of peat-
stained water. If Egbert exceeded the speed-limit, he certainly
had the excuse of a clear road before him; there were no hedges
to hide advancing cars, neither was there any possibility of
whisking round a corner to find a hay-cart blocking the way. In
the course of an hour they had covered a considerable number of
miles, and found themselves whirling down the tremendous hill
that led to the seaside town of Chatcombe.

3 Arrived in the main street they left the motorcycle at a garage,
and strolled on to the promenade, joining the crowd of holiday-
makers who were sauntering along in the heat, or sitting on the
benches watching the children digging in the sand below. Much
to Ingred’s astonishment she was suddenly hailed by her name,
and, turning, found herself greeted with enthusiasm by a
schoolfellow.

4 “Ingred! What a surprise!”

5 “Avis! Who’d have thought of seeing you?”

6 “Are you staying here?”

7 “No, only over for the afternoon.”

8 “We’ve rooms at Beach View over there. Come along and
have some tea with us, and your brothers too. Yes, indeed you
must! Mother will be delighted to see you all. I shan’t let you say
no!”

9 Borne away by her hospitable friend, Ingred presently found
herself sitting on a seat in the front garden of a tall boarding-
house facing the sea, and while Egbert and Hereward discussed
motor-cycling with Avis’s father, the two girls enjoyed a
confidential chat together.

10 “Only a few days now,” sighed Avis, “then we’ve got to leave
all this and go home. How long are you staying at Lynstones,
Ingred?”

11 “A fortnight more, but don’t talk of going home. I want the
holidays to last forever!”

12 “So do I, but they won’t. School begins on the twenty-first of
September. It will be rather sport to go to the new buildings at
last, won’t it? By the by, now the war’s over, and we’ve all got our
own again, I suppose you’re going back to Rotherwood, aren’t
you?”

13 “I suppose so, when it’s ready.”

14 “But surely the Red Cross cleared out ages ago, and the whole
place has been done up? I saw the paperhangers there in June.”

15 “Oh, yes!” Ingred’s voice was a little strained.

16 “You’ll be so glad to be living there again,” continued Avis. “I
always envied you that lovely house. You must have hated
lending it as a hospital. I expect when you’re back you’ll be giving
all sorts of delightful parties, won’t you? At least that’s what the
girls at school were saying.”

17 “It’s rather early to make plans,” temporized Ingred.

18 “Oh, of course! But Jess and Francie said you’d a gorgeous
floor for dancing. I do think a fancy-dress dance is about the best
fun on earth. The next time I get an invitation, I’m going as a
Quaker maiden, in a gray dress and the duckiest little white cap.
Don’t you think it would suit me? With your dark hair you ought to
be something Eastern. I can just imagine you acting hostess in a
shimmery sort of white-and-gold costume. Do promise to wear
white-and-gold!”

19 “All right,” laughed Ingred.

20 “It’s so delightful that the war’s over, and we can begin to have
parties again, like we used to do. Beatrice Jackson told me she
should never forget that Carnival dance she went to at
Rotherwood five years ago, and all the lanterns and fairy lamps.
Some of the other girls talk about it yet. Hullo, that’s the gong!
Come indoors, and we’ll have tea.”

Which quotation from the story supports the idea that Ingred’s relatives have had military experience?

2 / 23

Questions 1 through 8 refer to the following passage

Excerpt from A Popular Schoolgirl
by Angela Brazil

1 The Saxons were spending their summer holidays at a farm
near the seaside, and for the first time in four long years the
whole family was reunited. Mr. Saxon, Egbert, and Athelstane
had only just been demobilized, and had hardly yet settled down
to civilian life. They had joined the rest of the party at Lynstones
before returning to their native town of Grovebury. The six weeks
by the sea seemed a kind of oasis between the anxious period of
the war that was past and gone, and the new epoch that
stretched ahead in the future. To Ingred they were halcyon days.
To have her father and brothers safely back, and for the family to
be together in the midst of such beautiful scenery, was sufficient
for utter enjoyment. She did not wish her mind to venture outside
the charmed circle of the holidays. Beyond, when she thought
about it all, lay a nebulous prospect, in the center of which school
loomed large.

2 On this particular hot August afternoon, Ingred welcomed an
excursion in the sidecar. She had not felt inclined to walk down
the white path under the blazing sun to the glaring beach, but it
was another matter to spin along the high road till, as the fairy
tales put it, her hair whistled in the wind. Egbert was anxious to
set off, so Hereward took his place on the luggage-carrier, and,
after some back-firing, the three started forth. It was a glorious
run over moorland country, with glimpses of the sea on the one
hand, and craggy tors on the other, and round them billowy
masses of heather, broken here and there by runnels of peat-
stained water. If Egbert exceeded the speed-limit, he certainly
had the excuse of a clear road before him; there were no hedges
to hide advancing cars, neither was there any possibility of
whisking round a corner to find a hay-cart blocking the way. In
the course of an hour they had covered a considerable number of
miles, and found themselves whirling down the tremendous hill
that led to the seaside town of Chatcombe.

3 Arrived in the main street they left the motorcycle at a garage,
and strolled on to the promenade, joining the crowd of holiday-
makers who were sauntering along in the heat, or sitting on the
benches watching the children digging in the sand below. Much
to Ingred’s astonishment she was suddenly hailed by her name,
and, turning, found herself greeted with enthusiasm by a
schoolfellow.

4 “Ingred! What a surprise!”

5 “Avis! Who’d have thought of seeing you?”

6 “Are you staying here?”

7 “No, only over for the afternoon.”

8 “We’ve rooms at Beach View over there. Come along and
have some tea with us, and your brothers too. Yes, indeed you
must! Mother will be delighted to see you all. I shan’t let you say
no!”

9 Borne away by her hospitable friend, Ingred presently found
herself sitting on a seat in the front garden of a tall boarding-
house facing the sea, and while Egbert and Hereward discussed
motor-cycling with Avis’s father, the two girls enjoyed a
confidential chat together.

10 “Only a few days now,” sighed Avis, “then we’ve got to leave
all this and go home. How long are you staying at Lynstones,
Ingred?”

11 “A fortnight more, but don’t talk of going home. I want the
holidays to last forever!”

12 “So do I, but they won’t. School begins on the twenty-first of
September. It will be rather sport to go to the new buildings at
last, won’t it? By the by, now the war’s over, and we’ve all got our
own again, I suppose you’re going back to Rotherwood, aren’t
you?”

13 “I suppose so, when it’s ready.”

14 “But surely the Red Cross cleared out ages ago, and the whole
place has been done up? I saw the paperhangers there in June.”

15 “Oh, yes!” Ingred’s voice was a little strained.

16 “You’ll be so glad to be living there again,” continued Avis. “I
always envied you that lovely house. You must have hated
lending it as a hospital. I expect when you’re back you’ll be giving
all sorts of delightful parties, won’t you? At least that’s what the
girls at school were saying.”

17 “It’s rather early to make plans,” temporized Ingred.

18 “Oh, of course! But Jess and Francie said you’d a gorgeous
floor for dancing. I do think a fancy-dress dance is about the best
fun on earth. The next time I get an invitation, I’m going as a
Quaker maiden, in a gray dress and the duckiest little white cap.
Don’t you think it would suit me? With your dark hair you ought to
be something Eastern. I can just imagine you acting hostess in a
shimmery sort of white-and-gold costume. Do promise to wear
white-and-gold!”

19 “All right,” laughed Ingred.

20 “It’s so delightful that the war’s over, and we can begin to have
parties again, like we used to do. Beatrice Jackson told me she
should never forget that Carnival dance she went to at
Rotherwood five years ago, and all the lanterns and fairy lamps.
Some of the other girls talk about it yet. Hullo, that’s the gong!
Come indoors, and we’ll have tea.”

Which definition best matches the use of the word “native” in paragraph 1?

3 / 23

Questions 1 through 8 refer to the following passage

Excerpt from A Popular Schoolgirl
by Angela Brazil

1 The Saxons were spending their summer holidays at a farm
near the seaside, and for the first time in four long years the
whole family was reunited. Mr. Saxon, Egbert, and Athelstane
had only just been demobilized, and had hardly yet settled down
to civilian life. They had joined the rest of the party at Lynstones
before returning to their native town of Grovebury. The six weeks
by the sea seemed a kind of oasis between the anxious period of
the war that was past and gone, and the new epoch that
stretched ahead in the future. To Ingred they were halcyon days.
To have her father and brothers safely back, and for the family to
be together in the midst of such beautiful scenery, was sufficient
for utter enjoyment. She did not wish her mind to venture outside
the charmed circle of the holidays. Beyond, when she thought
about it all, lay a nebulous prospect, in the center of which school
loomed large.

2 On this particular hot August afternoon, Ingred welcomed an
excursion in the sidecar. She had not felt inclined to walk down
the white path under the blazing sun to the glaring beach, but it
was another matter to spin along the high road till, as the fairy
tales put it, her hair whistled in the wind. Egbert was anxious to
set off, so Hereward took his place on the luggage-carrier, and,
after some back-firing, the three started forth. It was a glorious
run over moorland country, with glimpses of the sea on the one
hand, and craggy tors on the other, and round them billowy
masses of heather, broken here and there by runnels of peat-
stained water. If Egbert exceeded the speed-limit, he certainly
had the excuse of a clear road before him; there were no hedges
to hide advancing cars, neither was there any possibility of
whisking round a corner to find a hay-cart blocking the way. In
the course of an hour they had covered a considerable number of
miles, and found themselves whirling down the tremendous hill
that led to the seaside town of Chatcombe.

3 Arrived in the main street they left the motorcycle at a garage,
and strolled on to the promenade, joining the crowd of holiday-
makers who were sauntering along in the heat, or sitting on the
benches watching the children digging in the sand below. Much
to Ingred’s astonishment she was suddenly hailed by her name,
and, turning, found herself greeted with enthusiasm by a
schoolfellow.

4 “Ingred! What a surprise!”

5 “Avis! Who’d have thought of seeing you?”

6 “Are you staying here?”

7 “No, only over for the afternoon.”

8 “We’ve rooms at Beach View over there. Come along and
have some tea with us, and your brothers too. Yes, indeed you
must! Mother will be delighted to see you all. I shan’t let you say
no!”

9 Borne away by her hospitable friend, Ingred presently found
herself sitting on a seat in the front garden of a tall boarding-
house facing the sea, and while Egbert and Hereward discussed
motor-cycling with Avis’s father, the two girls enjoyed a
confidential chat together.

10 “Only a few days now,” sighed Avis, “then we’ve got to leave
all this and go home. How long are you staying at Lynstones,
Ingred?”

11 “A fortnight more, but don’t talk of going home. I want the
holidays to last forever!”

12 “So do I, but they won’t. School begins on the twenty-first of
September. It will be rather sport to go to the new buildings at
last, won’t it? By the by, now the war’s over, and we’ve all got our
own again, I suppose you’re going back to Rotherwood, aren’t
you?”

13 “I suppose so, when it’s ready.”

14 “But surely the Red Cross cleared out ages ago, and the whole
place has been done up? I saw the paperhangers there in June.”

15 “Oh, yes!” Ingred’s voice was a little strained.

16 “You’ll be so glad to be living there again,” continued Avis. “I
always envied you that lovely house. You must have hated
lending it as a hospital. I expect when you’re back you’ll be giving
all sorts of delightful parties, won’t you? At least that’s what the
girls at school were saying.”

17 “It’s rather early to make plans,” temporized Ingred.

18 “Oh, of course! But Jess and Francie said you’d a gorgeous
floor for dancing. I do think a fancy-dress dance is about the best
fun on earth. The next time I get an invitation, I’m going as a
Quaker maiden, in a gray dress and the duckiest little white cap.
Don’t you think it would suit me? With your dark hair you ought to
be something Eastern. I can just imagine you acting hostess in a
shimmery sort of white-and-gold costume. Do promise to wear
white-and-gold!”

19 “All right,” laughed Ingred.

20 “It’s so delightful that the war’s over, and we can begin to have
parties again, like we used to do. Beatrice Jackson told me she
should never forget that Carnival dance she went to at
Rotherwood five years ago, and all the lanterns and fairy lamps.
Some of the other girls talk about it yet. Hullo, that’s the gong!
Come indoors, and we’ll have tea.”

Read the following sentence from paragraph 2.

It was a glorious run over moorland country, with
glimpses of the sea on the one hand, and craggy tors on
the other, and round them billowy masses of heather,
broken here and there by runnels of peat-stained water.

The detailed description of the landscape enhances the story by

4 / 23

Questions 1 through 8 refer to the following passage

Excerpt from A Popular Schoolgirl
by Angela Brazil

1 The Saxons were spending their summer holidays at a farm
near the seaside, and for the first time in four long years the
whole family was reunited. Mr. Saxon, Egbert, and Athelstane
had only just been demobilized, and had hardly yet settled down
to civilian life. They had joined the rest of the party at Lynstones
before returning to their native town of Grovebury. The six weeks
by the sea seemed a kind of oasis between the anxious period of
the war that was past and gone, and the new epoch that
stretched ahead in the future. To Ingred they were halcyon days.
To have her father and brothers safely back, and for the family to
be together in the midst of such beautiful scenery, was sufficient
for utter enjoyment. She did not wish her mind to venture outside
the charmed circle of the holidays. Beyond, when she thought
about it all, lay a nebulous prospect, in the center of which school
loomed large.

2 On this particular hot August afternoon, Ingred welcomed an
excursion in the sidecar. She had not felt inclined to walk down
the white path under the blazing sun to the glaring beach, but it
was another matter to spin along the high road till, as the fairy
tales put it, her hair whistled in the wind. Egbert was anxious to
set off, so Hereward took his place on the luggage-carrier, and,
after some back-firing, the three started forth. It was a glorious
run over moorland country, with glimpses of the sea on the one
hand, and craggy tors on the other, and round them billowy
masses of heather, broken here and there by runnels of peat-
stained water. If Egbert exceeded the speed-limit, he certainly
had the excuse of a clear road before him; there were no hedges
to hide advancing cars, neither was there any possibility of
whisking round a corner to find a hay-cart blocking the way. In
the course of an hour they had covered a considerable number of
miles, and found themselves whirling down the tremendous hill
that led to the seaside town of Chatcombe.

3 Arrived in the main street they left the motorcycle at a garage,
and strolled on to the promenade, joining the crowd of holiday-
makers who were sauntering along in the heat, or sitting on the
benches watching the children digging in the sand below. Much
to Ingred’s astonishment she was suddenly hailed by her name,
and, turning, found herself greeted with enthusiasm by a
schoolfellow.

4 “Ingred! What a surprise!”

5 “Avis! Who’d have thought of seeing you?”

6 “Are you staying here?”

7 “No, only over for the afternoon.”

8 “We’ve rooms at Beach View over there. Come along and
have some tea with us, and your brothers too. Yes, indeed you
must! Mother will be delighted to see you all. I shan’t let you say
no!”

9 Borne away by her hospitable friend, Ingred presently found
herself sitting on a seat in the front garden of a tall boarding-
house facing the sea, and while Egbert and Hereward discussed
motor-cycling with Avis’s father, the two girls enjoyed a
confidential chat together.

10 “Only a few days now,” sighed Avis, “then we’ve got to leave
all this and go home. How long are you staying at Lynstones,
Ingred?”

11 “A fortnight more, but don’t talk of going home. I want the
holidays to last forever!”

12 “So do I, but they won’t. School begins on the twenty-first of
September. It will be rather sport to go to the new buildings at
last, won’t it? By the by, now the war’s over, and we’ve all got our
own again, I suppose you’re going back to Rotherwood, aren’t
you?”

13 “I suppose so, when it’s ready.”

14 “But surely the Red Cross cleared out ages ago, and the whole
place has been done up? I saw the paperhangers there in June.”

15 “Oh, yes!” Ingred’s voice was a little strained.

16 “You’ll be so glad to be living there again,” continued Avis. “I
always envied you that lovely house. You must have hated
lending it as a hospital. I expect when you’re back you’ll be giving
all sorts of delightful parties, won’t you? At least that’s what the
girls at school were saying.”

17 “It’s rather early to make plans,” temporized Ingred.

18 “Oh, of course! But Jess and Francie said you’d a gorgeous
floor for dancing. I do think a fancy-dress dance is about the best
fun on earth. The next time I get an invitation, I’m going as a
Quaker maiden, in a gray dress and the duckiest little white cap.
Don’t you think it would suit me? With your dark hair you ought to
be something Eastern. I can just imagine you acting hostess in a
shimmery sort of white-and-gold costume. Do promise to wear
white-and-gold!”

19 “All right,” laughed Ingred.

20 “It’s so delightful that the war’s over, and we can begin to have
parties again, like we used to do. Beatrice Jackson told me she
should never forget that Carnival dance she went to at
Rotherwood five years ago, and all the lanterns and fairy lamps.
Some of the other girls talk about it yet. Hullo, that’s the gong!
Come indoors, and we’ll have tea.”

Read the sentences from paragraph 14.

“But surely the Red Cross cleared out ages ago, and the
whole place has been done up? I saw the paperhangers
there in June.

What is the significance to Ingred of the “place” mentioned in the passage?

5 / 23

Questions 1 through 8 refer to the following passage

Excerpt from A Popular Schoolgirl
by Angela Brazil

1 The Saxons were spending their summer holidays at a farm
near the seaside, and for the first time in four long years the
whole family was reunited. Mr. Saxon, Egbert, and Athelstane
had only just been demobilized, and had hardly yet settled down
to civilian life. They had joined the rest of the party at Lynstones
before returning to their native town of Grovebury. The six weeks
by the sea seemed a kind of oasis between the anxious period of
the war that was past and gone, and the new epoch that
stretched ahead in the future. To Ingred they were halcyon days.
To have her father and brothers safely back, and for the family to
be together in the midst of such beautiful scenery, was sufficient
for utter enjoyment. She did not wish her mind to venture outside
the charmed circle of the holidays. Beyond, when she thought
about it all, lay a nebulous prospect, in the center of which school
loomed large.

2 On this particular hot August afternoon, Ingred welcomed an
excursion in the sidecar. She had not felt inclined to walk down
the white path under the blazing sun to the glaring beach, but it
was another matter to spin along the high road till, as the fairy
tales put it, her hair whistled in the wind. Egbert was anxious to
set off, so Hereward took his place on the luggage-carrier, and,
after some back-firing, the three started forth. It was a glorious
run over moorland country, with glimpses of the sea on the one
hand, and craggy tors on the other, and round them billowy
masses of heather, broken here and there by runnels of peat-
stained water. If Egbert exceeded the speed-limit, he certainly
had the excuse of a clear road before him; there were no hedges
to hide advancing cars, neither was there any possibility of
whisking round a corner to find a hay-cart blocking the way. In
the course of an hour they had covered a considerable number of
miles, and found themselves whirling down the tremendous hill
that led to the seaside town of Chatcombe.

3 Arrived in the main street they left the motorcycle at a garage,
and strolled on to the promenade, joining the crowd of holiday-
makers who were sauntering along in the heat, or sitting on the
benches watching the children digging in the sand below. Much
to Ingred’s astonishment she was suddenly hailed by her name,
and, turning, found herself greeted with enthusiasm by a
schoolfellow.

4 “Ingred! What a surprise!”

5 “Avis! Who’d have thought of seeing you?”

6 “Are you staying here?”

7 “No, only over for the afternoon.”

8 “We’ve rooms at Beach View over there. Come along and
have some tea with us, and your brothers too. Yes, indeed you
must! Mother will be delighted to see you all. I shan’t let you say
no!”

9 Borne away by her hospitable friend, Ingred presently found
herself sitting on a seat in the front garden of a tall boarding-
house facing the sea, and while Egbert and Hereward discussed
motor-cycling with Avis’s father, the two girls enjoyed a
confidential chat together.

10 “Only a few days now,” sighed Avis, “then we’ve got to leave
all this and go home. How long are you staying at Lynstones,
Ingred?”

11 “A fortnight more, but don’t talk of going home. I want the
holidays to last forever!”

12 “So do I, but they won’t. School begins on the twenty-first of
September. It will be rather sport to go to the new buildings at
last, won’t it? By the by, now the war’s over, and we’ve all got our
own again, I suppose you’re going back to Rotherwood, aren’t
you?”

13 “I suppose so, when it’s ready.”

14 “But surely the Red Cross cleared out ages ago, and the whole
place has been done up? I saw the paperhangers there in June.”

15 “Oh, yes!” Ingred’s voice was a little strained.

16 “You’ll be so glad to be living there again,” continued Avis. “I
always envied you that lovely house. You must have hated
lending it as a hospital. I expect when you’re back you’ll be giving
all sorts of delightful parties, won’t you? At least that’s what the
girls at school were saying.”

17 “It’s rather early to make plans,” temporized Ingred.

18 “Oh, of course! But Jess and Francie said you’d a gorgeous
floor for dancing. I do think a fancy-dress dance is about the best
fun on earth. The next time I get an invitation, I’m going as a
Quaker maiden, in a gray dress and the duckiest little white cap.
Don’t you think it would suit me? With your dark hair you ought to
be something Eastern. I can just imagine you acting hostess in a
shimmery sort of white-and-gold costume. Do promise to wear
white-and-gold!”

19 “All right,” laughed Ingred.

20 “It’s so delightful that the war’s over, and we can begin to have
parties again, like we used to do. Beatrice Jackson told me she
should never forget that Carnival dance she went to at
Rotherwood five years ago, and all the lanterns and fairy lamps.
Some of the other girls talk about it yet. Hullo, that’s the gong!
Come indoors, and we’ll have tea.”

In paragraph 15, which characteristic does the passage reveal about Ingred as she responds to Avis?

Questions 1 through 8 refer to the following passage

Excerpt from A Popular Schoolgirl
by Angela Brazil

1 The Saxons were spending their summer holidays at a farm
near the seaside, and for the first time in four long years the
whole family was reunited. Mr. Saxon, Egbert, and Athelstane
had only just been demobilized, and had hardly yet settled down
to civilian life. They had joined the rest of the party at Lynstones
before returning to their native town of Grovebury. The six weeks
by the sea seemed a kind of oasis between the anxious period of
the war that was past and gone, and the new epoch that
stretched ahead in the future. To Ingred they were halcyon days.
To have her father and brothers safely back, and for the family to
be together in the midst of such beautiful scenery, was sufficient
for utter enjoyment. She did not wish her mind to venture outside
the charmed circle of the holidays. Beyond, when she thought
about it all, lay a nebulous prospect, in the center of which school
loomed large.

2 On this particular hot August afternoon, Ingred welcomed an
excursion in the sidecar. She had not felt inclined to walk down
the white path under the blazing sun to the glaring beach, but it
was another matter to spin along the high road till, as the fairy
tales put it, her hair whistled in the wind. Egbert was anxious to
set off, so Hereward took his place on the luggage-carrier, and,
after some back-firing, the three started forth. It was a glorious
run over moorland country, with glimpses of the sea on the one
hand, and craggy tors on the other, and round them billowy
masses of heather, broken here and there by runnels of peat-
stained water. If Egbert exceeded the speed-limit, he certainly
had the excuse of a clear road before him; there were no hedges
to hide advancing cars, neither was there any possibility of
whisking round a corner to find a hay-cart blocking the way. In
the course of an hour they had covered a considerable number of
miles, and found themselves whirling down the tremendous hill
that led to the seaside town of Chatcombe.

3 Arrived in the main street they left the motorcycle at a garage,
and strolled on to the promenade, joining the crowd of holiday-
makers who were sauntering along in the heat, or sitting on the
benches watching the children digging in the sand below. Much
to Ingred’s astonishment she was suddenly hailed by her name,
and, turning, found herself greeted with enthusiasm by a
schoolfellow.

4 “Ingred! What a surprise!”

5 “Avis! Who’d have thought of seeing you?”

6 “Are you staying here?”

7 “No, only over for the afternoon.”

8 “We’ve rooms at Beach View over there. Come along and
have some tea with us, and your brothers too. Yes, indeed you
must! Mother will be delighted to see you all. I shan’t let you say
no!”

9 Borne away by her hospitable friend, Ingred presently found
herself sitting on a seat in the front garden of a tall boarding-
house facing the sea, and while Egbert and Hereward discussed
motor-cycling with Avis’s father, the two girls enjoyed a
confidential chat together.

10 “Only a few days now,” sighed Avis, “then we’ve got to leave
all this and go home. How long are you staying at Lynstones,
Ingred?”

11 “A fortnight more, but don’t talk of going home. I want the
holidays to last forever!”

12 “So do I, but they won’t. School begins on the twenty-first of
September. It will be rather sport to go to the new buildings at
last, won’t it? By the by, now the war’s over, and we’ve all got our
own again, I suppose you’re going back to Rotherwood, aren’t
you?”

13 “I suppose so, when it’s ready.”

14 “But surely the Red Cross cleared out ages ago, and the whole
place has been done up? I saw the paperhangers there in June.”

15 “Oh, yes!” Ingred’s voice was a little strained.

16 “You’ll be so glad to be living there again,” continued Avis. “I
always envied you that lovely house. You must have hated
lending it as a hospital. I expect when you’re back you’ll be giving
all sorts of delightful parties, won’t you? At least that’s what the
girls at school were saying.”

17 “It’s rather early to make plans,” temporized Ingred.

18 “Oh, of course! But Jess and Francie said you’d a gorgeous
floor for dancing. I do think a fancy-dress dance is about the best
fun on earth. The next time I get an invitation, I’m going as a
Quaker maiden, in a gray dress and the duckiest little white cap.
Don’t you think it would suit me? With your dark hair you ought to
be something Eastern. I can just imagine you acting hostess in a
shimmery sort of white-and-gold costume. Do promise to wear
white-and-gold!”

19 “All right,” laughed Ingred.

20 “It’s so delightful that the war’s over, and we can begin to have
parties again, like we used to do. Beatrice Jackson told me she
should never forget that Carnival dance she went to at
Rotherwood five years ago, and all the lanterns and fairy lamps.
Some of the other girls talk about it yet. Hullo, that’s the gong!
Come indoors, and we’ll have tea.”

In the Actual GED Test you have to Drag and drop the events into the chart to show the order in which they occur in the excerpt. (For this practice test, write the event letters in the chart.)

View Answer

1. Event (d): The Saxons unite at Lynestones.
2. Event (a): Egbert drives Ingred to the beach.
3. Event (b): Ingred is invited to tea.
4. Event (c): Avis talks about a fancy-dress dance.

6 / 23

Questions 1 through 8 refer to the following passage

Excerpt from A Popular Schoolgirl
by Angela Brazil

1 The Saxons were spending their summer holidays at a farm
near the seaside, and for the first time in four long years the
whole family was reunited. Mr. Saxon, Egbert, and Athelstane
had only just been demobilized, and had hardly yet settled down
to civilian life. They had joined the rest of the party at Lynstones
before returning to their native town of Grovebury. The six weeks
by the sea seemed a kind of oasis between the anxious period of
the war that was past and gone, and the new epoch that
stretched ahead in the future. To Ingred they were halcyon days.
To have her father and brothers safely back, and for the family to
be together in the midst of such beautiful scenery, was sufficient
for utter enjoyment. She did not wish her mind to venture outside
the charmed circle of the holidays. Beyond, when she thought
about it all, lay a nebulous prospect, in the center of which school
loomed large.

2 On this particular hot August afternoon, Ingred welcomed an
excursion in the sidecar. She had not felt inclined to walk down
the white path under the blazing sun to the glaring beach, but it
was another matter to spin along the high road till, as the fairy
tales put it, her hair whistled in the wind. Egbert was anxious to
set off, so Hereward took his place on the luggage-carrier, and,
after some back-firing, the three started forth. It was a glorious
run over moorland country, with glimpses of the sea on the one
hand, and craggy tors on the other, and round them billowy
masses of heather, broken here and there by runnels of peat-
stained water. If Egbert exceeded the speed-limit, he certainly
had the excuse of a clear road before him; there were no hedges
to hide advancing cars, neither was there any possibility of
whisking round a corner to find a hay-cart blocking the way. In
the course of an hour they had covered a considerable number of
miles, and found themselves whirling down the tremendous hill
that led to the seaside town of Chatcombe.

3 Arrived in the main street they left the motorcycle at a garage,
and strolled on to the promenade, joining the crowd of holiday-
makers who were sauntering along in the heat, or sitting on the
benches watching the children digging in the sand below. Much
to Ingred’s astonishment she was suddenly hailed by her name,
and, turning, found herself greeted with enthusiasm by a
schoolfellow.

4 “Ingred! What a surprise!”

5 “Avis! Who’d have thought of seeing you?”

6 “Are you staying here?”

7 “No, only over for the afternoon.”

8 “We’ve rooms at Beach View over there. Come along and
have some tea with us, and your brothers too. Yes, indeed you
must! Mother will be delighted to see you all. I shan’t let you say
no!”

9 Borne away by her hospitable friend, Ingred presently found
herself sitting on a seat in the front garden of a tall boarding-
house facing the sea, and while Egbert and Hereward discussed
motor-cycling with Avis’s father, the two girls enjoyed a
confidential chat together.

10 “Only a few days now,” sighed Avis, “then we’ve got to leave
all this and go home. How long are you staying at Lynstones,
Ingred?”

11 “A fortnight more, but don’t talk of going home. I want the
holidays to last forever!”

12 “So do I, but they won’t. School begins on the twenty-first of
September. It will be rather sport to go to the new buildings at
last, won’t it? By the by, now the war’s over, and we’ve all got our
own again, I suppose you’re going back to Rotherwood, aren’t
you?”

13 “I suppose so, when it’s ready.”

14 “But surely the Red Cross cleared out ages ago, and the whole
place has been done up? I saw the paperhangers there in June.”

15 “Oh, yes!” Ingred’s voice was a little strained.

16 “You’ll be so glad to be living there again,” continued Avis. “I
always envied you that lovely house. You must have hated
lending it as a hospital. I expect when you’re back you’ll be giving
all sorts of delightful parties, won’t you? At least that’s what the
girls at school were saying.”

17 “It’s rather early to make plans,” temporized Ingred.

18 “Oh, of course! But Jess and Francie said you’d a gorgeous
floor for dancing. I do think a fancy-dress dance is about the best
fun on earth. The next time I get an invitation, I’m going as a
Quaker maiden, in a gray dress and the duckiest little white cap.
Don’t you think it would suit me? With your dark hair you ought to
be something Eastern. I can just imagine you acting hostess in a
shimmery sort of white-and-gold costume. Do promise to wear
white-and-gold!”

19 “All right,” laughed Ingred.

20 “It’s so delightful that the war’s over, and we can begin to have
parties again, like we used to do. Beatrice Jackson told me she
should never forget that Carnival dance she went to at
Rotherwood five years ago, and all the lanterns and fairy lamps.
Some of the other girls talk about it yet. Hullo, that’s the gong!
Come indoors, and we’ll have tea.”

Drag and drop each word that describes Ingred into the character web. (For this practice test, write each word in the web.)

7 / 23

Questions 1 through 8 refer to the following passage

Excerpt from A Popular Schoolgirl
by Angela Brazil

1 The Saxons were spending their summer holidays at a farm
near the seaside, and for the first time in four long years the
whole family was reunited. Mr. Saxon, Egbert, and Athelstane
had only just been demobilized, and had hardly yet settled down
to civilian life. They had joined the rest of the party at Lynstones
before returning to their native town of Grovebury. The six weeks
by the sea seemed a kind of oasis between the anxious period of
the war that was past and gone, and the new epoch that
stretched ahead in the future. To Ingred they were halcyon days.
To have her father and brothers safely back, and for the family to
be together in the midst of such beautiful scenery, was sufficient
for utter enjoyment. She did not wish her mind to venture outside
the charmed circle of the holidays. Beyond, when she thought
about it all, lay a nebulous prospect, in the center of which school
loomed large.

2 On this particular hot August afternoon, Ingred welcomed an
excursion in the sidecar. She had not felt inclined to walk down
the white path under the blazing sun to the glaring beach, but it
was another matter to spin along the high road till, as the fairy
tales put it, her hair whistled in the wind. Egbert was anxious to
set off, so Hereward took his place on the luggage-carrier, and,
after some back-firing, the three started forth. It was a glorious
run over moorland country, with glimpses of the sea on the one
hand, and craggy tors on the other, and round them billowy
masses of heather, broken here and there by runnels of peat-
stained water. If Egbert exceeded the speed-limit, he certainly
had the excuse of a clear road before him; there were no hedges
to hide advancing cars, neither was there any possibility of
whisking round a corner to find a hay-cart blocking the way. In
the course of an hour they had covered a considerable number of
miles, and found themselves whirling down the tremendous hill
that led to the seaside town of Chatcombe.

3 Arrived in the main street they left the motorcycle at a garage,
and strolled on to the promenade, joining the crowd of holiday-
makers who were sauntering along in the heat, or sitting on the
benches watching the children digging in the sand below. Much
to Ingred’s astonishment she was suddenly hailed by her name,
and, turning, found herself greeted with enthusiasm by a
schoolfellow.

4 “Ingred! What a surprise!”

5 “Avis! Who’d have thought of seeing you?”

6 “Are you staying here?”

7 “No, only over for the afternoon.”

8 “We’ve rooms at Beach View over there. Come along and
have some tea with us, and your brothers too. Yes, indeed you
must! Mother will be delighted to see you all. I shan’t let you say
no!”

9 Borne away by her hospitable friend, Ingred presently found
herself sitting on a seat in the front garden of a tall boarding-
house facing the sea, and while Egbert and Hereward discussed
motor-cycling with Avis’s father, the two girls enjoyed a
confidential chat together.

10 “Only a few days now,” sighed Avis, “then we’ve got to leave
all this and go home. How long are you staying at Lynstones,
Ingred?”

11 “A fortnight more, but don’t talk of going home. I want the
holidays to last forever!”

12 “So do I, but they won’t. School begins on the twenty-first of
September. It will be rather sport to go to the new buildings at
last, won’t it? By the by, now the war’s over, and we’ve all got our
own again, I suppose you’re going back to Rotherwood, aren’t
you?”

13 “I suppose so, when it’s ready.”

14 “But surely the Red Cross cleared out ages ago, and the whole
place has been done up? I saw the paperhangers there in June.”

15 “Oh, yes!” Ingred’s voice was a little strained.

16 “You’ll be so glad to be living there again,” continued Avis. “I
always envied you that lovely house. You must have hated
lending it as a hospital. I expect when you’re back you’ll be giving
all sorts of delightful parties, won’t you? At least that’s what the
girls at school were saying.”

17 “It’s rather early to make plans,” temporized Ingred.

18 “Oh, of course! But Jess and Francie said you’d a gorgeous
floor for dancing. I do think a fancy-dress dance is about the best
fun on earth. The next time I get an invitation, I’m going as a
Quaker maiden, in a gray dress and the duckiest little white cap.
Don’t you think it would suit me? With your dark hair you ought to
be something Eastern. I can just imagine you acting hostess in a
shimmery sort of white-and-gold costume. Do promise to wear
white-and-gold!”

19 “All right,” laughed Ingred.

20 “It’s so delightful that the war’s over, and we can begin to have
parties again, like we used to do. Beatrice Jackson told me she
should never forget that Carnival dance she went to at
Rotherwood five years ago, and all the lanterns and fairy lamps.
Some of the other girls talk about it yet. Hullo, that’s the gong!
Come indoors, and we’ll have tea.”

Based on the details in the story, what can readers predict about Avis?

8 / 23

Questions 9 through 15 refer to the following article.

Devices and Additives to Improve Fuel Economy and
Reduce Pollution—Do They Really Work?
By the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

Watch Out!

1 Have you seen advertisements for products that “Double Your
Fuel Economy,” or “Clean-up Your Car’s Tailpipe Exhaust”? Be
careful about these products; don’t be fooled by erroneous
claims.

Fuel Additives

2 Some advertisements claim that certain fuel additives have
been approved by the EPA. While the EPA requires fuel additives
to be “registered,” the EPA does not test additives for engine
efficiency, emissions benefits, or safety as part of the registration.
To register an additive, manufacturers report the chemical
composition and technical, marketing, and health effects
information. The EPA does NOT endorse or certify fuel additives;
registration with the EPA does not imply anything about the
claims made by the manufacturer.

Aftermarket Devices to Improve Fuel Economy or Reduce Emissions

3 If a device has significant benefits, the manufacturer may
apply for EPA testing through the Voluntary Aftermarket Retrofit
Device Evaluation Program. Very few manufacturers have
applied for this program in the past 10 years. Most devices tested
in earlier years had a neutral or negative effect on fuel economy
and/or exhaust emissions. Without this report, the EPA has no
information about the safety of the device or its impact on fuel
efficiency or the environment.

Popular Devices and Their Effects

  • Devices that turn water into fuel: The EPA has
    received no credible and complete data showing fuel
    economy benefits from devices that split water
    molecules into hydrogen and oxygen gas, which is
    then burned with your fuel. Some devices’ installation
    instructions include adjustments that the EPA would
    consider tampering. Tampering with your car’s
    emissions control system is punishable by significant
    fines.
  • Fuel line devices: Some devices heat, magnetize,
    ionize, irradiate, or add metals to the fuel lines. EPA
    testing of such devices has shown no substantive
    effect on fuel economy or exhaust emissions.
    Installation of devices that retard timing or adjust the
    air-fuel ratio of the vehicle may be considered
    tampering.
  • Mixture enhancers: The EPA has received no credible
    and complete data showing fuel economy benefits from
    devices that claim to increase fuel efficiency by
    creating aerodynamic properties or turbulence that
    improves the air-fuel mix prior to combustion.

Aftermarket Alternative Fuel Conversions

4 Aftermarket alternative fuel conversions are sometimes
alleged to improve fuel economy and reduce pollution. However,
it is difficult to re-engineer a vehicle to operate properly on a
different fuel, and especially difficult to ensure that the vehicle will
meet emission standards. So, before choosing a vehicle
conversion, consider these factors:

  • It is not the fuel alone but the integration of engine,
    fueling, exhaust and evaporative emission control
    system designs that determines how clean a vehicle
    will be. Vehicle conversion systems must retain a
    similarly integrated design and functionality to retain
    low emissions.
  • Gaseous and alcohol fuels are less energy dense than
    conventional fuels, so your fuel efficiency per gallon of
    fuel will decrease compared to gasoline or diesel.
  • Be sure to check whether your vehicle’s manufacturer
    will honor the warranty after conversion.

If the conversion manufacturer has not followed EPA guidelines,
you may be violating the tampering prohibition and/or increasing
the release of harmful exhaust and evaporative emissions.

5 Therefore, thoroughly research any aftermarket part or additive
before purchasing, and remember the old adage, “If it sounds too
good to be true, it probably is.”

Improve Your Fuel Economy
By the U.S. Department of Energy

Fuel-Saving Habits

6 There are several things you can do to obtain the best possible
fuel economy and produce the lowest possible emissions.

  • Avoid idling. Idling gets 0 miles per gallon and costs as
    much as $0.04 per minute.
  • Keep tires inflated to the recommended pressure, and
    use the recommended grade of motor oil, which can
    improve fuel economy by up to 5%.
  • Drive more efficiently. Each 5 MPH you drive over 60
    MPH can reduce your fuel economy by 7%.

  • Keep your car in shape. Fixing a car that is out of tune
    can improve your gas mileage by about 4%.
    Combine your trips. Many short trips taken from a cold
  • start can use twice as much fuel as one multipurpose
    trip.
  • Avoid carrying unneeded items. An extra 100 pounds
    can decrease fuel economy by 1%–2%.

Fuel-Saving Technology Highlight: Start-Stop Systems

7 An energy-saving feature is now available that can help you
save fuel in stop-and-go traffic, at red lights, and in other
situations where your car would normally waste fuel idling. Start-
stop systems turn off the engine when a vehicle comes to a stop
and automatically start it back up when the brake is released or
when the accelerator or clutch is pressed. It usually takes half a
second or less to restart. Until recently, these systems were
mostly found on hybrid vehicles, but as of the 2014 model year,
they are available on about one hundred conventional vehicle
models. By turning off the engine when it’s not needed, start-stop
systems can improve fuel economy by around 4 to 5 percent on
average. Unlike a hybrid system, which can add thousands of
dollars to a vehicle’s cost, a start-stop system typically adds only
a few hundred dollars. A start-stop system doesn’t require you to
drive differently, but it may take some time for you to get used to
the way the vehicle operates or feels. Most systems are robust
and easy to use. If you spend significant drive time idling, a
vehicle equipped with a start-stop system might just be right for
you!

Sources: Adapted and abridged from Devices and Additives to Improve Fuel Economy
and Reduce Pollution—Do They Really Work?, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency,
2012, and Model Year 2014 Fuel Economy Guide, U.S. Department of Energy, 2016.

Drag and drop two statements that express the EPA’s purposes for writing its article into the empty boxes. (For this practice test, write the statement letters in the boxes below.)

9 / 23

Questions 9 through 15 refer to the following article.

Devices and Additives to Improve Fuel Economy and
Reduce Pollution—Do They Really Work?
By the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

Watch Out!

1 Have you seen advertisements for products that “Double Your
Fuel Economy,” or “Clean-up Your Car’s Tailpipe Exhaust”? Be
careful about these products; don’t be fooled by erroneous
claims.

Fuel Additives

2 Some advertisements claim that certain fuel additives have
been approved by the EPA. While the EPA requires fuel additives
to be “registered,” the EPA does not test additives for engine
efficiency, emissions benefits, or safety as part of the registration.
To register an additive, manufacturers report the chemical
composition and technical, marketing, and health effects
information. The EPA does NOT endorse or certify fuel additives;
registration with the EPA does not imply anything about the
claims made by the manufacturer.

Aftermarket Devices to Improve Fuel Economy or Reduce Emissions

3 If a device has significant benefits, the manufacturer may
apply for EPA testing through the Voluntary Aftermarket Retrofit
Device Evaluation Program. Very few manufacturers have
applied for this program in the past 10 years. Most devices tested
in earlier years had a neutral or negative effect on fuel economy
and/or exhaust emissions. Without this report, the EPA has no
information about the safety of the device or its impact on fuel
efficiency or the environment.

Popular Devices and Their Effects

  • Devices that turn water into fuel: The EPA has
    received no credible and complete data showing fuel
    economy benefits from devices that split water
    molecules into hydrogen and oxygen gas, which is
    then burned with your fuel. Some devices’ installation
    instructions include adjustments that the EPA would
    consider tampering. Tampering with your car’s
    emissions control system is punishable by significant
    fines.
  • Fuel line devices: Some devices heat, magnetize,
    ionize, irradiate, or add metals to the fuel lines. EPA
    testing of such devices has shown no substantive
    effect on fuel economy or exhaust emissions.
    Installation of devices that retard timing or adjust the
    air-fuel ratio of the vehicle may be considered
    tampering.
  • Mixture enhancers: The EPA has received no credible
    and complete data showing fuel economy benefits from
    devices that claim to increase fuel efficiency by
    creating aerodynamic properties or turbulence that
    improves the air-fuel mix prior to combustion.

Aftermarket Alternative Fuel Conversions

4 Aftermarket alternative fuel conversions are sometimes
alleged to improve fuel economy and reduce pollution. However,
it is difficult to re-engineer a vehicle to operate properly on a
different fuel, and especially difficult to ensure that the vehicle will
meet emission standards. So, before choosing a vehicle
conversion, consider these factors:

  • It is not the fuel alone but the integration of engine,
    fueling, exhaust and evaporative emission control
    system designs that determines how clean a vehicle
    will be. Vehicle conversion systems must retain a
    similarly integrated design and functionality to retain
    low emissions.
  • Gaseous and alcohol fuels are less energy dense than
    conventional fuels, so your fuel efficiency per gallon of
    fuel will decrease compared to gasoline or diesel.
  • Be sure to check whether your vehicle’s manufacturer
    will honor the warranty after conversion.

If the conversion manufacturer has not followed EPA guidelines,
you may be violating the tampering prohibition and/or increasing
the release of harmful exhaust and evaporative emissions.

5 Therefore, thoroughly research any aftermarket part or additive
before purchasing, and remember the old adage, “If it sounds too
good to be true, it probably is.”

Improve Your Fuel Economy
By the U.S. Department of Energy

Fuel-Saving Habits

6 There are several things you can do to obtain the best possible
fuel economy and produce the lowest possible emissions.

  • Avoid idling. Idling gets 0 miles per gallon and costs as
    much as $0.04 per minute.
  • Keep tires inflated to the recommended pressure, and
    use the recommended grade of motor oil, which can
    improve fuel economy by up to 5%.
  • Drive more efficiently. Each 5 MPH you drive over 60
    MPH can reduce your fuel economy by 7%.

  • Keep your car in shape. Fixing a car that is out of tune
    can improve your gas mileage by about 4%.
    Combine your trips. Many short trips taken from a cold
  • start can use twice as much fuel as one multipurpose
    trip.
  • Avoid carrying unneeded items. An extra 100 pounds
    can decrease fuel economy by 1%–2%.

Fuel-Saving Technology Highlight: Start-Stop Systems

7 An energy-saving feature is now available that can help you
save fuel in stop-and-go traffic, at red lights, and in other
situations where your car would normally waste fuel idling. Start-
stop systems turn off the engine when a vehicle comes to a stop
and automatically start it back up when the brake is released or
when the accelerator or clutch is pressed. It usually takes half a
second or less to restart. Until recently, these systems were
mostly found on hybrid vehicles, but as of the 2014 model year,
they are available on about one hundred conventional vehicle
models. By turning off the engine when it’s not needed, start-stop
systems can improve fuel economy by around 4 to 5 percent on
average. Unlike a hybrid system, which can add thousands of
dollars to a vehicle’s cost, a start-stop system typically adds only
a few hundred dollars. A start-stop system doesn’t require you to
drive differently, but it may take some time for you to get used to
the way the vehicle operates or feels. Most systems are robust
and easy to use. If you spend significant drive time idling, a
vehicle equipped with a start-stop system might just be right for
you!

Sources: Adapted and abridged from Devices and Additives to Improve Fuel Economy
and Reduce Pollution—Do They Really Work?, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency,
2012, and Model Year 2014 Fuel Economy Guide, U.S. Department of Energy, 2016.

Which conclusion is best supported by the Department of Energy article?

10 / 23

Questions 9 through 15 refer to the following article.

Devices and Additives to Improve Fuel Economy and
Reduce Pollution—Do They Really Work?
By the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

Watch Out!

1 Have you seen advertisements for products that “Double Your
Fuel Economy,” or “Clean-up Your Car’s Tailpipe Exhaust”? Be
careful about these products; don’t be fooled by erroneous
claims.

Fuel Additives

2 Some advertisements claim that certain fuel additives have
been approved by the EPA. While the EPA requires fuel additives
to be “registered,” the EPA does not test additives for engine
efficiency, emissions benefits, or safety as part of the registration.
To register an additive, manufacturers report the chemical
composition and technical, marketing, and health effects
information. The EPA does NOT endorse or certify fuel additives;
registration with the EPA does not imply anything about the
claims made by the manufacturer.

Aftermarket Devices to Improve Fuel Economy or Reduce Emissions

3 If a device has significant benefits, the manufacturer may
apply for EPA testing through the Voluntary Aftermarket Retrofit
Device Evaluation Program. Very few manufacturers have
applied for this program in the past 10 years. Most devices tested
in earlier years had a neutral or negative effect on fuel economy
and/or exhaust emissions. Without this report, the EPA has no
information about the safety of the device or its impact on fuel
efficiency or the environment.

Popular Devices and Their Effects

  • Devices that turn water into fuel: The EPA has
    received no credible and complete data showing fuel
    economy benefits from devices that split water
    molecules into hydrogen and oxygen gas, which is
    then burned with your fuel. Some devices’ installation
    instructions include adjustments that the EPA would
    consider tampering. Tampering with your car’s
    emissions control system is punishable by significant
    fines.
  • Fuel line devices: Some devices heat, magnetize,
    ionize, irradiate, or add metals to the fuel lines. EPA
    testing of such devices has shown no substantive
    effect on fuel economy or exhaust emissions.
    Installation of devices that retard timing or adjust the
    air-fuel ratio of the vehicle may be considered
    tampering.
  • Mixture enhancers: The EPA has received no credible
    and complete data showing fuel economy benefits from
    devices that claim to increase fuel efficiency by
    creating aerodynamic properties or turbulence that
    improves the air-fuel mix prior to combustion.

Aftermarket Alternative Fuel Conversions

4 Aftermarket alternative fuel conversions are sometimes
alleged to improve fuel economy and reduce pollution. However,
it is difficult to re-engineer a vehicle to operate properly on a
different fuel, and especially difficult to ensure that the vehicle will
meet emission standards. So, before choosing a vehicle
conversion, consider these factors:

  • It is not the fuel alone but the integration of engine,
    fueling, exhaust and evaporative emission control
    system designs that determines how clean a vehicle
    will be. Vehicle conversion systems must retain a
    similarly integrated design and functionality to retain
    low emissions.
  • Gaseous and alcohol fuels are less energy dense than
    conventional fuels, so your fuel efficiency per gallon of
    fuel will decrease compared to gasoline or diesel.
  • Be sure to check whether your vehicle’s manufacturer
    will honor the warranty after conversion.

If the conversion manufacturer has not followed EPA guidelines,
you may be violating the tampering prohibition and/or increasing
the release of harmful exhaust and evaporative emissions.

5 Therefore, thoroughly research any aftermarket part or additive
before purchasing, and remember the old adage, “If it sounds too
good to be true, it probably is.”

Improve Your Fuel Economy
By the U.S. Department of Energy

Fuel-Saving Habits

6 There are several things you can do to obtain the best possible
fuel economy and produce the lowest possible emissions.

  • Avoid idling. Idling gets 0 miles per gallon and costs as
    much as $0.04 per minute.
  • Keep tires inflated to the recommended pressure, and
    use the recommended grade of motor oil, which can
    improve fuel economy by up to 5%.
  • Drive more efficiently. Each 5 MPH you drive over 60
    MPH can reduce your fuel economy by 7%.

  • Keep your car in shape. Fixing a car that is out of tune
    can improve your gas mileage by about 4%.
    Combine your trips. Many short trips taken from a cold
  • start can use twice as much fuel as one multipurpose
    trip.
  • Avoid carrying unneeded items. An extra 100 pounds
    can decrease fuel economy by 1%–2%.

Fuel-Saving Technology Highlight: Start-Stop Systems

7 An energy-saving feature is now available that can help you
save fuel in stop-and-go traffic, at red lights, and in other
situations where your car would normally waste fuel idling. Start-
stop systems turn off the engine when a vehicle comes to a stop
and automatically start it back up when the brake is released or
when the accelerator or clutch is pressed. It usually takes half a
second or less to restart. Until recently, these systems were
mostly found on hybrid vehicles, but as of the 2014 model year,
they are available on about one hundred conventional vehicle
models. By turning off the engine when it’s not needed, start-stop
systems can improve fuel economy by around 4 to 5 percent on
average. Unlike a hybrid system, which can add thousands of
dollars to a vehicle’s cost, a start-stop system typically adds only
a few hundred dollars. A start-stop system doesn’t require you to
drive differently, but it may take some time for you to get used to
the way the vehicle operates or feels. Most systems are robust
and easy to use. If you spend significant drive time idling, a
vehicle equipped with a start-stop system might just be right for
you!

Sources: Adapted and abridged from Devices and Additives to Improve Fuel Economy
and Reduce Pollution—Do They Really Work?, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency,
2012, and Model Year 2014 Fuel Economy Guide, U.S. Department of Energy, 2016.

What was the author’s purpose for including the sentence “Very few manufacturers have applied for this program in the past 10 years” (paragraph 3) in the Environmental Protection Agency article?

11 / 23

Questions 9 through 15 refer to the following article.

Devices and Additives to Improve Fuel Economy and
Reduce Pollution—Do They Really Work?
By the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

Watch Out!

1 Have you seen advertisements for products that “Double Your
Fuel Economy,” or “Clean-up Your Car’s Tailpipe Exhaust”? Be
careful about these products; don’t be fooled by erroneous
claims.

Fuel Additives

2 Some advertisements claim that certain fuel additives have
been approved by the EPA. While the EPA requires fuel additives
to be “registered,” the EPA does not test additives for engine
efficiency, emissions benefits, or safety as part of the registration.
To register an additive, manufacturers report the chemical
composition and technical, marketing, and health effects
information. The EPA does NOT endorse or certify fuel additives;
registration with the EPA does not imply anything about the
claims made by the manufacturer.

Aftermarket Devices to Improve Fuel Economy or Reduce Emissions

3 If a device has significant benefits, the manufacturer may
apply for EPA testing through the Voluntary Aftermarket Retrofit
Device Evaluation Program. Very few manufacturers have
applied for this program in the past 10 years. Most devices tested
in earlier years had a neutral or negative effect on fuel economy
and/or exhaust emissions. Without this report, the EPA has no
information about the safety of the device or its impact on fuel
efficiency or the environment.

Popular Devices and Their Effects

  • Devices that turn water into fuel: The EPA has
    received no credible and complete data showing fuel
    economy benefits from devices that split water
    molecules into hydrogen and oxygen gas, which is
    then burned with your fuel. Some devices’ installation
    instructions include adjustments that the EPA would
    consider tampering. Tampering with your car’s
    emissions control system is punishable by significant
    fines.
  • Fuel line devices: Some devices heat, magnetize,
    ionize, irradiate, or add metals to the fuel lines. EPA
    testing of such devices has shown no substantive
    effect on fuel economy or exhaust emissions.
    Installation of devices that retard timing or adjust the
    air-fuel ratio of the vehicle may be considered
    tampering.
  • Mixture enhancers: The EPA has received no credible
    and complete data showing fuel economy benefits from
    devices that claim to increase fuel efficiency by
    creating aerodynamic properties or turbulence that
    improves the air-fuel mix prior to combustion.

Aftermarket Alternative Fuel Conversions

4 Aftermarket alternative fuel conversions are sometimes
alleged to improve fuel economy and reduce pollution. However,
it is difficult to re-engineer a vehicle to operate properly on a
different fuel, and especially difficult to ensure that the vehicle will
meet emission standards. So, before choosing a vehicle
conversion, consider these factors:

  • It is not the fuel alone but the integration of engine,
    fueling, exhaust and evaporative emission control
    system designs that determines how clean a vehicle
    will be. Vehicle conversion systems must retain a
    similarly integrated design and functionality to retain
    low emissions.
  • Gaseous and alcohol fuels are less energy dense than
    conventional fuels, so your fuel efficiency per gallon of
    fuel will decrease compared to gasoline or diesel.
  • Be sure to check whether your vehicle’s manufacturer
    will honor the warranty after conversion.

If the conversion manufacturer has not followed EPA guidelines,
you may be violating the tampering prohibition and/or increasing
the release of harmful exhaust and evaporative emissions.

5 Therefore, thoroughly research any aftermarket part or additive
before purchasing, and remember the old adage, “If it sounds too
good to be true, it probably is.”

Improve Your Fuel Economy
By the U.S. Department of Energy

Fuel-Saving Habits

6 There are several things you can do to obtain the best possible
fuel economy and produce the lowest possible emissions.

  • Avoid idling. Idling gets 0 miles per gallon and costs as
    much as $0.04 per minute.
  • Keep tires inflated to the recommended pressure, and
    use the recommended grade of motor oil, which can
    improve fuel economy by up to 5%.
  • Drive more efficiently. Each 5 MPH you drive over 60
    MPH can reduce your fuel economy by 7%.

  • Keep your car in shape. Fixing a car that is out of tune
    can improve your gas mileage by about 4%.
    Combine your trips. Many short trips taken from a cold
  • start can use twice as much fuel as one multipurpose
    trip.
  • Avoid carrying unneeded items. An extra 100 pounds
    can decrease fuel economy by 1%–2%.

Fuel-Saving Technology Highlight: Start-Stop Systems

7 An energy-saving feature is now available that can help you
save fuel in stop-and-go traffic, at red lights, and in other
situations where your car would normally waste fuel idling. Start-
stop systems turn off the engine when a vehicle comes to a stop
and automatically start it back up when the brake is released or
when the accelerator or clutch is pressed. It usually takes half a
second or less to restart. Until recently, these systems were
mostly found on hybrid vehicles, but as of the 2014 model year,
they are available on about one hundred conventional vehicle
models. By turning off the engine when it’s not needed, start-stop
systems can improve fuel economy by around 4 to 5 percent on
average. Unlike a hybrid system, which can add thousands of
dollars to a vehicle’s cost, a start-stop system typically adds only
a few hundred dollars. A start-stop system doesn’t require you to
drive differently, but it may take some time for you to get used to
the way the vehicle operates or feels. Most systems are robust
and easy to use. If you spend significant drive time idling, a
vehicle equipped with a start-stop system might just be right for
you!

Sources: Adapted and abridged from Devices and Additives to Improve Fuel Economy
and Reduce Pollution—Do They Really Work?, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency,
2012, and Model Year 2014 Fuel Economy Guide, U.S. Department of Energy, 2016.

How does the chart extend the information in the article by the Department of Energy?

12 / 23

Questions 9 through 15 refer to the following article.

Devices and Additives to Improve Fuel Economy and
Reduce Pollution—Do They Really Work?
By the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

Watch Out!

1 Have you seen advertisements for products that “Double Your
Fuel Economy,” or “Clean-up Your Car’s Tailpipe Exhaust”? Be
careful about these products; don’t be fooled by erroneous
claims.

Fuel Additives

2 Some advertisements claim that certain fuel additives have
been approved by the EPA. While the EPA requires fuel additives
to be “registered,” the EPA does not test additives for engine
efficiency, emissions benefits, or safety as part of the registration.
To register an additive, manufacturers report the chemical
composition and technical, marketing, and health effects
information. The EPA does NOT endorse or certify fuel additives;
registration with the EPA does not imply anything about the
claims made by the manufacturer.

Aftermarket Devices to Improve Fuel Economy or Reduce Emissions

3 If a device has significant benefits, the manufacturer may
apply for EPA testing through the Voluntary Aftermarket Retrofit
Device Evaluation Program. Very few manufacturers have
applied for this program in the past 10 years. Most devices tested
in earlier years had a neutral or negative effect on fuel economy
and/or exhaust emissions. Without this report, the EPA has no
information about the safety of the device or its impact on fuel
efficiency or the environment.

Popular Devices and Their Effects

  • Devices that turn water into fuel: The EPA has
    received no credible and complete data showing fuel
    economy benefits from devices that split water
    molecules into hydrogen and oxygen gas, which is
    then burned with your fuel. Some devices’ installation
    instructions include adjustments that the EPA would
    consider tampering. Tampering with your car’s
    emissions control system is punishable by significant
    fines.
  • Fuel line devices: Some devices heat, magnetize,
    ionize, irradiate, or add metals to the fuel lines. EPA
    testing of such devices has shown no substantive
    effect on fuel economy or exhaust emissions.
    Installation of devices that retard timing or adjust the
    air-fuel ratio of the vehicle may be considered
    tampering.
  • Mixture enhancers: The EPA has received no credible
    and complete data showing fuel economy benefits from
    devices that claim to increase fuel efficiency by
    creating aerodynamic properties or turbulence that
    improves the air-fuel mix prior to combustion.

Aftermarket Alternative Fuel Conversions

4 Aftermarket alternative fuel conversions are sometimes
alleged to improve fuel economy and reduce pollution. However,
it is difficult to re-engineer a vehicle to operate properly on a
different fuel, and especially difficult to ensure that the vehicle will
meet emission standards. So, before choosing a vehicle
conversion, consider these factors:

  • It is not the fuel alone but the integration of engine,
    fueling, exhaust and evaporative emission control
    system designs that determines how clean a vehicle
    will be. Vehicle conversion systems must retain a
    similarly integrated design and functionality to retain
    low emissions.
  • Gaseous and alcohol fuels are less energy dense than
    conventional fuels, so your fuel efficiency per gallon of
    fuel will decrease compared to gasoline or diesel.
  • Be sure to check whether your vehicle’s manufacturer
    will honor the warranty after conversion.

If the conversion manufacturer has not followed EPA guidelines,
you may be violating the tampering prohibition and/or increasing
the release of harmful exhaust and evaporative emissions.

5 Therefore, thoroughly research any aftermarket part or additive
before purchasing, and remember the old adage, “If it sounds too
good to be true, it probably is.”

Improve Your Fuel Economy
By the U.S. Department of Energy

Fuel-Saving Habits

6 There are several things you can do to obtain the best possible
fuel economy and produce the lowest possible emissions.

  • Avoid idling. Idling gets 0 miles per gallon and costs as
    much as $0.04 per minute.
  • Keep tires inflated to the recommended pressure, and
    use the recommended grade of motor oil, which can
    improve fuel economy by up to 5%.
  • Drive more efficiently. Each 5 MPH you drive over 60
    MPH can reduce your fuel economy by 7%.

  • Keep your car in shape. Fixing a car that is out of tune
    can improve your gas mileage by about 4%.
    Combine your trips. Many short trips taken from a cold
  • start can use twice as much fuel as one multipurpose
    trip.
  • Avoid carrying unneeded items. An extra 100 pounds
    can decrease fuel economy by 1%–2%.

Fuel-Saving Technology Highlight: Start-Stop Systems

7 An energy-saving feature is now available that can help you
save fuel in stop-and-go traffic, at red lights, and in other
situations where your car would normally waste fuel idling. Start-
stop systems turn off the engine when a vehicle comes to a stop
and automatically start it back up when the brake is released or
when the accelerator or clutch is pressed. It usually takes half a
second or less to restart. Until recently, these systems were
mostly found on hybrid vehicles, but as of the 2014 model year,
they are available on about one hundred conventional vehicle
models. By turning off the engine when it’s not needed, start-stop
systems can improve fuel economy by around 4 to 5 percent on
average. Unlike a hybrid system, which can add thousands of
dollars to a vehicle’s cost, a start-stop system typically adds only
a few hundred dollars. A start-stop system doesn’t require you to
drive differently, but it may take some time for you to get used to
the way the vehicle operates or feels. Most systems are robust
and easy to use. If you spend significant drive time idling, a
vehicle equipped with a start-stop system might just be right for
you!

Sources: Adapted and abridged from Devices and Additives to Improve Fuel Economy
and Reduce Pollution—Do They Really Work?, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency,
2012, and Model Year 2014 Fuel Economy Guide, U.S. Department of Energy, 2016.

How are the two articles similar?

13 / 23

Questions 9 through 15 refer to the following article.

Devices and Additives to Improve Fuel Economy and
Reduce Pollution—Do They Really Work?
By the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

Watch Out!

1 Have you seen advertisements for products that “Double Your
Fuel Economy,” or “Clean-up Your Car’s Tailpipe Exhaust”? Be
careful about these products; don’t be fooled by erroneous
claims.

Fuel Additives

2 Some advertisements claim that certain fuel additives have
been approved by the EPA. While the EPA requires fuel additives
to be “registered,” the EPA does not test additives for engine
efficiency, emissions benefits, or safety as part of the registration.
To register an additive, manufacturers report the chemical
composition and technical, marketing, and health effects
information. The EPA does NOT endorse or certify fuel additives;
registration with the EPA does not imply anything about the
claims made by the manufacturer.

Aftermarket Devices to Improve Fuel Economy or Reduce Emissions

3 If a device has significant benefits, the manufacturer may
apply for EPA testing through the Voluntary Aftermarket Retrofit
Device Evaluation Program. Very few manufacturers have
applied for this program in the past 10 years. Most devices tested
in earlier years had a neutral or negative effect on fuel economy
and/or exhaust emissions. Without this report, the EPA has no
information about the safety of the device or its impact on fuel
efficiency or the environment.

Popular Devices and Their Effects

  • Devices that turn water into fuel: The EPA has
    received no credible and complete data showing fuel
    economy benefits from devices that split water
    molecules into hydrogen and oxygen gas, which is
    then burned with your fuel. Some devices’ installation
    instructions include adjustments that the EPA would
    consider tampering. Tampering with your car’s
    emissions control system is punishable by significant
    fines.
  • Fuel line devices: Some devices heat, magnetize,
    ionize, irradiate, or add metals to the fuel lines. EPA
    testing of such devices has shown no substantive
    effect on fuel economy or exhaust emissions.
    Installation of devices that retard timing or adjust the
    air-fuel ratio of the vehicle may be considered
    tampering.
  • Mixture enhancers: The EPA has received no credible
    and complete data showing fuel economy benefits from
    devices that claim to increase fuel efficiency by
    creating aerodynamic properties or turbulence that
    improves the air-fuel mix prior to combustion.

Aftermarket Alternative Fuel Conversions

4 Aftermarket alternative fuel conversions are sometimes
alleged to improve fuel economy and reduce pollution. However,
it is difficult to re-engineer a vehicle to operate properly on a
different fuel, and especially difficult to ensure that the vehicle will
meet emission standards. So, before choosing a vehicle
conversion, consider these factors:

  • It is not the fuel alone but the integration of engine,
    fueling, exhaust and evaporative emission control
    system designs that determines how clean a vehicle
    will be. Vehicle conversion systems must retain a
    similarly integrated design and functionality to retain
    low emissions.
  • Gaseous and alcohol fuels are less energy dense than
    conventional fuels, so your fuel efficiency per gallon of
    fuel will decrease compared to gasoline or diesel.
  • Be sure to check whether your vehicle’s manufacturer
    will honor the warranty after conversion.

If the conversion manufacturer has not followed EPA guidelines,
you may be violating the tampering prohibition and/or increasing
the release of harmful exhaust and evaporative emissions.

5 Therefore, thoroughly research any aftermarket part or additive
before purchasing, and remember the old adage, “If it sounds too
good to be true, it probably is.”

Improve Your Fuel Economy
By the U.S. Department of Energy

Fuel-Saving Habits

6 There are several things you can do to obtain the best possible
fuel economy and produce the lowest possible emissions.

  • Avoid idling. Idling gets 0 miles per gallon and costs as
    much as $0.04 per minute.
  • Keep tires inflated to the recommended pressure, and
    use the recommended grade of motor oil, which can
    improve fuel economy by up to 5%.
  • Drive more efficiently. Each 5 MPH you drive over 60
    MPH can reduce your fuel economy by 7%.

  • Keep your car in shape. Fixing a car that is out of tune
    can improve your gas mileage by about 4%.
    Combine your trips. Many short trips taken from a cold
  • start can use twice as much fuel as one multipurpose
    trip.
  • Avoid carrying unneeded items. An extra 100 pounds
    can decrease fuel economy by 1%–2%.

Fuel-Saving Technology Highlight: Start-Stop Systems

7 An energy-saving feature is now available that can help you
save fuel in stop-and-go traffic, at red lights, and in other
situations where your car would normally waste fuel idling. Start-
stop systems turn off the engine when a vehicle comes to a stop
and automatically start it back up when the brake is released or
when the accelerator or clutch is pressed. It usually takes half a
second or less to restart. Until recently, these systems were
mostly found on hybrid vehicles, but as of the 2014 model year,
they are available on about one hundred conventional vehicle
models. By turning off the engine when it’s not needed, start-stop
systems can improve fuel economy by around 4 to 5 percent on
average. Unlike a hybrid system, which can add thousands of
dollars to a vehicle’s cost, a start-stop system typically adds only
a few hundred dollars. A start-stop system doesn’t require you to
drive differently, but it may take some time for you to get used to
the way the vehicle operates or feels. Most systems are robust
and easy to use. If you spend significant drive time idling, a
vehicle equipped with a start-stop system might just be right for
you!

Sources: Adapted and abridged from Devices and Additives to Improve Fuel Economy
and Reduce Pollution—Do They Really Work?, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency,
2012, and Model Year 2014 Fuel Economy Guide, U.S. Department of Energy, 2016.

Which idea about the effect of aftermarket fuel economy devices is included in the article by the EPA?

14 / 23

Questions 9 through 15 refer to the following article.

Devices and Additives to Improve Fuel Economy and
Reduce Pollution—Do They Really Work?
By the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

Watch Out!

1 Have you seen advertisements for products that “Double Your
Fuel Economy,” or “Clean-up Your Car’s Tailpipe Exhaust”? Be
careful about these products; don’t be fooled by erroneous
claims.

Fuel Additives

2 Some advertisements claim that certain fuel additives have
been approved by the EPA. While the EPA requires fuel additives
to be “registered,” the EPA does not test additives for engine
efficiency, emissions benefits, or safety as part of the registration.
To register an additive, manufacturers report the chemical
composition and technical, marketing, and health effects
information. The EPA does NOT endorse or certify fuel additives;
registration with the EPA does not imply anything about the
claims made by the manufacturer.

Aftermarket Devices to Improve Fuel Economy or Reduce Emissions

3 If a device has significant benefits, the manufacturer may
apply for EPA testing through the Voluntary Aftermarket Retrofit
Device Evaluation Program. Very few manufacturers have
applied for this program in the past 10 years. Most devices tested
in earlier years had a neutral or negative effect on fuel economy
and/or exhaust emissions. Without this report, the EPA has no
information about the safety of the device or its impact on fuel
efficiency or the environment.

Popular Devices and Their Effects

  • Devices that turn water into fuel: The EPA has
    received no credible and complete data showing fuel
    economy benefits from devices that split water
    molecules into hydrogen and oxygen gas, which is
    then burned with your fuel. Some devices’ installation
    instructions include adjustments that the EPA would
    consider tampering. Tampering with your car’s
    emissions control system is punishable by significant
    fines.
  • Fuel line devices: Some devices heat, magnetize,
    ionize, irradiate, or add metals to the fuel lines. EPA
    testing of such devices has shown no substantive
    effect on fuel economy or exhaust emissions.
    Installation of devices that retard timing or adjust the
    air-fuel ratio of the vehicle may be considered
    tampering.
  • Mixture enhancers: The EPA has received no credible
    and complete data showing fuel economy benefits from
    devices that claim to increase fuel efficiency by
    creating aerodynamic properties or turbulence that
    improves the air-fuel mix prior to combustion.

Aftermarket Alternative Fuel Conversions

4 Aftermarket alternative fuel conversions are sometimes
alleged to improve fuel economy and reduce pollution. However,
it is difficult to re-engineer a vehicle to operate properly on a
different fuel, and especially difficult to ensure that the vehicle will
meet emission standards. So, before choosing a vehicle
conversion, consider these factors:

  • It is not the fuel alone but the integration of engine,
    fueling, exhaust and evaporative emission control
    system designs that determines how clean a vehicle
    will be. Vehicle conversion systems must retain a
    similarly integrated design and functionality to retain
    low emissions.
  • Gaseous and alcohol fuels are less energy dense than
    conventional fuels, so your fuel efficiency per gallon of
    fuel will decrease compared to gasoline or diesel.
  • Be sure to check whether your vehicle’s manufacturer
    will honor the warranty after conversion.

If the conversion manufacturer has not followed EPA guidelines,
you may be violating the tampering prohibition and/or increasing
the release of harmful exhaust and evaporative emissions.

5 Therefore, thoroughly research any aftermarket part or additive
before purchasing, and remember the old adage, “If it sounds too
good to be true, it probably is.”

Improve Your Fuel Economy
By the U.S. Department of Energy

Fuel-Saving Habits

6 There are several things you can do to obtain the best possible
fuel economy and produce the lowest possible emissions.

  • Avoid idling. Idling gets 0 miles per gallon and costs as
    much as $0.04 per minute.
  • Keep tires inflated to the recommended pressure, and
    use the recommended grade of motor oil, which can
    improve fuel economy by up to 5%.
  • Drive more efficiently. Each 5 MPH you drive over 60
    MPH can reduce your fuel economy by 7%.

  • Keep your car in shape. Fixing a car that is out of tune
    can improve your gas mileage by about 4%.
    Combine your trips. Many short trips taken from a cold
  • start can use twice as much fuel as one multipurpose
    trip.
  • Avoid carrying unneeded items. An extra 100 pounds
    can decrease fuel economy by 1%–2%.

Fuel-Saving Technology Highlight: Start-Stop Systems

7 An energy-saving feature is now available that can help you
save fuel in stop-and-go traffic, at red lights, and in other
situations where your car would normally waste fuel idling. Start-
stop systems turn off the engine when a vehicle comes to a stop
and automatically start it back up when the brake is released or
when the accelerator or clutch is pressed. It usually takes half a
second or less to restart. Until recently, these systems were
mostly found on hybrid vehicles, but as of the 2014 model year,
they are available on about one hundred conventional vehicle
models. By turning off the engine when it’s not needed, start-stop
systems can improve fuel economy by around 4 to 5 percent on
average. Unlike a hybrid system, which can add thousands of
dollars to a vehicle’s cost, a start-stop system typically adds only
a few hundred dollars. A start-stop system doesn’t require you to
drive differently, but it may take some time for you to get used to
the way the vehicle operates or feels. Most systems are robust
and easy to use. If you spend significant drive time idling, a
vehicle equipped with a start-stop system might just be right for
you!

Sources: Adapted and abridged from Devices and Additives to Improve Fuel Economy
and Reduce Pollution—Do They Really Work?, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency,
2012, and Model Year 2014 Fuel Economy Guide, U.S. Department of Energy, 2016.

How does the “Fuel-Saving Habits” section (paragraph 6) of the Department of Energy article relate to the “Fuel-Saving Technology Highlight” section (paragraph 7)?

15 / 23

Questions 9 through 15 refer to the following article.

Devices and Additives to Improve Fuel Economy and
Reduce Pollution—Do They Really Work?
By the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

Watch Out!

1 Have you seen advertisements for products that “Double Your
Fuel Economy,” or “Clean-up Your Car’s Tailpipe Exhaust”? Be
careful about these products; don’t be fooled by erroneous
claims.

Fuel Additives

2 Some advertisements claim that certain fuel additives have
been approved by the EPA. While the EPA requires fuel additives
to be “registered,” the EPA does not test additives for engine
efficiency, emissions benefits, or safety as part of the registration.
To register an additive, manufacturers report the chemical
composition and technical, marketing, and health effects
information. The EPA does NOT endorse or certify fuel additives;
registration with the EPA does not imply anything about the
claims made by the manufacturer.

Aftermarket Devices to Improve Fuel Economy or Reduce Emissions

3 If a device has significant benefits, the manufacturer may
apply for EPA testing through the Voluntary Aftermarket Retrofit
Device Evaluation Program. Very few manufacturers have
applied for this program in the past 10 years. Most devices tested
in earlier years had a neutral or negative effect on fuel economy
and/or exhaust emissions. Without this report, the EPA has no
information about the safety of the device or its impact on fuel
efficiency or the environment.

Popular Devices and Their Effects

  • Devices that turn water into fuel: The EPA has
    received no credible and complete data showing fuel
    economy benefits from devices that split water
    molecules into hydrogen and oxygen gas, which is
    then burned with your fuel. Some devices’ installation
    instructions include adjustments that the EPA would
    consider tampering. Tampering with your car’s
    emissions control system is punishable by significant
    fines.
  • Fuel line devices: Some devices heat, magnetize,
    ionize, irradiate, or add metals to the fuel lines. EPA
    testing of such devices has shown no substantive
    effect on fuel economy or exhaust emissions.
    Installation of devices that retard timing or adjust the
    air-fuel ratio of the vehicle may be considered
    tampering.
  • Mixture enhancers: The EPA has received no credible
    and complete data showing fuel economy benefits from
    devices that claim to increase fuel efficiency by
    creating aerodynamic properties or turbulence that
    improves the air-fuel mix prior to combustion.

Aftermarket Alternative Fuel Conversions

4 Aftermarket alternative fuel conversions are sometimes
alleged to improve fuel economy and reduce pollution. However,
it is difficult to re-engineer a vehicle to operate properly on a
different fuel, and especially difficult to ensure that the vehicle will
meet emission standards. So, before choosing a vehicle
conversion, consider these factors:

  • It is not the fuel alone but the integration of engine,
    fueling, exhaust and evaporative emission control
    system designs that determines how clean a vehicle
    will be. Vehicle conversion systems must retain a
    similarly integrated design and functionality to retain
    low emissions.
  • Gaseous and alcohol fuels are less energy dense than
    conventional fuels, so your fuel efficiency per gallon of
    fuel will decrease compared to gasoline or diesel.
  • Be sure to check whether your vehicle’s manufacturer
    will honor the warranty after conversion.

If the conversion manufacturer has not followed EPA guidelines,
you may be violating the tampering prohibition and/or increasing
the release of harmful exhaust and evaporative emissions.

5 Therefore, thoroughly research any aftermarket part or additive
before purchasing, and remember the old adage, “If it sounds too
good to be true, it probably is.”

Improve Your Fuel Economy
By the U.S. Department of Energy

Fuel-Saving Habits

6 There are several things you can do to obtain the best possible
fuel economy and produce the lowest possible emissions.

  • Avoid idling. Idling gets 0 miles per gallon and costs as
    much as $0.04 per minute.
  • Keep tires inflated to the recommended pressure, and
    use the recommended grade of motor oil, which can
    improve fuel economy by up to 5%.
  • Drive more efficiently. Each 5 MPH you drive over 60
    MPH can reduce your fuel economy by 7%.

  • Keep your car in shape. Fixing a car that is out of tune
    can improve your gas mileage by about 4%.
    Combine your trips. Many short trips taken from a cold
  • start can use twice as much fuel as one multipurpose
    trip.
  • Avoid carrying unneeded items. An extra 100 pounds
    can decrease fuel economy by 1%–2%.

Fuel-Saving Technology Highlight: Start-Stop Systems

7 An energy-saving feature is now available that can help you
save fuel in stop-and-go traffic, at red lights, and in other
situations where your car would normally waste fuel idling. Start-
stop systems turn off the engine when a vehicle comes to a stop
and automatically start it back up when the brake is released or
when the accelerator or clutch is pressed. It usually takes half a
second or less to restart. Until recently, these systems were
mostly found on hybrid vehicles, but as of the 2014 model year,
they are available on about one hundred conventional vehicle
models. By turning off the engine when it’s not needed, start-stop
systems can improve fuel economy by around 4 to 5 percent on
average. Unlike a hybrid system, which can add thousands of
dollars to a vehicle’s cost, a start-stop system typically adds only
a few hundred dollars. A start-stop system doesn’t require you to
drive differently, but it may take some time for you to get used to
the way the vehicle operates or feels. Most systems are robust
and easy to use. If you spend significant drive time idling, a
vehicle equipped with a start-stop system might just be right for
you!

Sources: Adapted and abridged from Devices and Additives to Improve Fuel Economy
and Reduce Pollution—Do They Really Work?, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency,
2012, and Model Year 2014 Fuel Economy Guide, U.S. Department of Energy, 2016.

In the Department of Energy article, what is the effect of the use of the word “robust” in paragraph 7?

16 / 23

Questions 16 through 23 refer to the following passage.

Niagara
by Mark Twain

1   Niagara Falls is a most enjoyable place of resort. The hotels
are excellent, and the prices not at all exorbitant. The
opportunities for fishing are not surpassed in the country; in fact,
they are not even equaled elsewhere. Because, in other
localities, certain places in the streams are much better than
others; but at Niagara one place is just as good as another, for
the reason that the fish do not bite anywhere, and so there is no
use in your walking five miles to fish, when you can depend on
being just as unsuccessful nearer home. The advantages of this
state of things have never heretofore been properly placed
before the public.

2   The weather is cool in summer, and the walks and drives are
all pleasant and none of them fatiguing. When you start out to
“do” the Falls you first drive down about a mile, and pay a small
sum for the privilege of looking down from a precipice into the
narrowest part of the Niagara River. A railway “cut” through a hill
would be as comely if it had the angry river tumbling and foaming
through its bottom. You can descend a staircase here a hundred
and fifty feet down, and stand at the edge of the water. After you
have done it, you will wonder why you did it; but you will then be
too late.

3    Then you drive over to Suspension Bridge, and divide your
misery between the chances of smashing down two hundred feet
into the river below, and the chances of having the railway-train
overhead smashing down onto you. Either possibility is
discomforting taken by itself, but, mixed together, they amount in
the aggregate to positive unhappiness.

4   When you have examined the stupendous Horseshoe Fall till
you are satisfied you cannot improve on it, you return to America
by the new Suspension Bridge, and follow up the bank to where
they exhibit the Cave of the Winds.

5    Here I followed instructions, and divested myself of all my
clothing, and put on a waterproof jacket and overalls. This
costume is picturesque, but not beautiful. A guide, similarly
dressed, led the way down a flight of winding stairs, which wound
and wound, and still kept on winding long after the thing ceased
to be a novelty, and then terminated long before it had begun to
be a pleasure. We were then well down under the precipice, but
still considerably above the level of the river.

6    We now began to creep along flimsy bridges of a single plank,
our persons shielded from destruction by a crazy wooden railing,
to which I clung with both hands—not because I was afraid, but
because I wanted to. Presently the descent became steeper and
the bridge flimsier, and sprays from the American Fall began to
rain down on us in fast increasing sheets that soon became
blinding, and after that our progress was mostly in the nature of
groping. Now a furious wind began to rush out from behind the
waterfall, which seemed determined to sweep us from the bridge,
and scatter us on the rocks and among the torrents below. I
remarked that I wanted to go home; but it was too late. We were
almost under the monstrous wall of water thundering down from
above, and speech was in vain in the midst of such a pitiless
crash of sound.

7    In another moment the guide disappeared behind the deluge,
and, bewildered by the thunder, driven helplessly by the wind,
and smitten by the arrowy tempest of rain, I followed. All was
darkness. Such a mad storming, roaring, and bellowing of
warring wind and water never crazed my ears before. I bent my
head, and seemed to receive the Atlantic on my back. The world
seemed going to destruction. I could not see anything, the flood
poured down savagely. I raised my head, with open mouth, and
the most of the American cataract went down my throat. If I had
sprung a leak now I had been lost. And at this moment I
discovered that the bridge had ceased, and we must trust for a
foothold to the slippery and precipitous rocks. I never was so
scared before and survived it. But we got through at last, and
emerged into the open day, where we could stand in front of the
laced and frothy and seething world of descending water, and
look at it. When I saw how much of it there was, and how fearfully
in earnest it was, I was sorry I had gone behind it

The author’s overall tone in paragraph 1 is one of

17 / 23

Questions 16 through 23 refer to the following passage.

Niagara
by Mark Twain

1   Niagara Falls is a most enjoyable place of resort. The hotels
are excellent, and the prices not at all exorbitant. The
opportunities for fishing are not surpassed in the country; in fact,
they are not even equaled elsewhere. Because, in other
localities, certain places in the streams are much better than
others; but at Niagara one place is just as good as another, for
the reason that the fish do not bite anywhere, and so there is no
use in your walking five miles to fish, when you can depend on
being just as unsuccessful nearer home. The advantages of this
state of things have never heretofore been properly placed
before the public.

2   The weather is cool in summer, and the walks and drives are
all pleasant and none of them fatiguing. When you start out to
“do” the Falls you first drive down about a mile, and pay a small
sum for the privilege of looking down from a precipice into the
narrowest part of the Niagara River. A railway “cut” through a hill
would be as comely if it had the angry river tumbling and foaming
through its bottom. You can descend a staircase here a hundred
and fifty feet down, and stand at the edge of the water. After you
have done it, you will wonder why you did it; but you will then be
too late.

3    Then you drive over to Suspension Bridge, and divide your
misery between the chances of smashing down two hundred feet
into the river below, and the chances of having the railway-train
overhead smashing down onto you. Either possibility is
discomforting taken by itself, but, mixed together, they amount in
the aggregate to positive unhappiness.

4   When you have examined the stupendous Horseshoe Fall till
you are satisfied you cannot improve on it, you return to America
by the new Suspension Bridge, and follow up the bank to where
they exhibit the Cave of the Winds.

5    Here I followed instructions, and divested myself of all my
clothing, and put on a waterproof jacket and overalls. This
costume is picturesque, but not beautiful. A guide, similarly
dressed, led the way down a flight of winding stairs, which wound
and wound, and still kept on winding long after the thing ceased
to be a novelty, and then terminated long before it had begun to
be a pleasure. We were then well down under the precipice, but
still considerably above the level of the river.

6    We now began to creep along flimsy bridges of a single plank,
our persons shielded from destruction by a crazy wooden railing,
to which I clung with both hands—not because I was afraid, but
because I wanted to. Presently the descent became steeper and
the bridge flimsier, and sprays from the American Fall began to
rain down on us in fast increasing sheets that soon became
blinding, and after that our progress was mostly in the nature of
groping. Now a furious wind began to rush out from behind the
waterfall, which seemed determined to sweep us from the bridge,
and scatter us on the rocks and among the torrents below. I
remarked that I wanted to go home; but it was too late. We were
almost under the monstrous wall of water thundering down from
above, and speech was in vain in the midst of such a pitiless
crash of sound.

7    In another moment the guide disappeared behind the deluge,
and, bewildered by the thunder, driven helplessly by the wind,
and smitten by the arrowy tempest of rain, I followed. All was
darkness. Such a mad storming, roaring, and bellowing of
warring wind and water never crazed my ears before. I bent my
head, and seemed to receive the Atlantic on my back. The world
seemed going to destruction. I could not see anything, the flood
poured down savagely. I raised my head, with open mouth, and
the most of the American cataract went down my throat. If I had
sprung a leak now I had been lost. And at this moment I
discovered that the bridge had ceased, and we must trust for a
foothold to the slippery and precipitous rocks. I never was so
scared before and survived it. But we got through at last, and
emerged into the open day, where we could stand in front of the
laced and frothy and seething world of descending water, and
look at it. When I saw how much of it there was, and how fearfully
in earnest it was, I was sorry I had gone behind it

Read this sentence from paragraph 2.

After you have done it, you will wonder why you did it;
but you will then be too late.

Why does the author choose to conclude the paragraph with this sentence?

18 / 23

Questions 16 through 23 refer to the following passage.

Niagara
by Mark Twain

1   Niagara Falls is a most enjoyable place of resort. The hotels
are excellent, and the prices not at all exorbitant. The
opportunities for fishing are not surpassed in the country; in fact,
they are not even equaled elsewhere. Because, in other
localities, certain places in the streams are much better than
others; but at Niagara one place is just as good as another, for
the reason that the fish do not bite anywhere, and so there is no
use in your walking five miles to fish, when you can depend on
being just as unsuccessful nearer home. The advantages of this
state of things have never heretofore been properly placed
before the public.

2   The weather is cool in summer, and the walks and drives are
all pleasant and none of them fatiguing. When you start out to
“do” the Falls you first drive down about a mile, and pay a small
sum for the privilege of looking down from a precipice into the
narrowest part of the Niagara River. A railway “cut” through a hill
would be as comely if it had the angry river tumbling and foaming
through its bottom. You can descend a staircase here a hundred
and fifty feet down, and stand at the edge of the water. After you
have done it, you will wonder why you did it; but you will then be
too late.

3    Then you drive over to Suspension Bridge, and divide your
misery between the chances of smashing down two hundred feet
into the river below, and the chances of having the railway-train
overhead smashing down onto you. Either possibility is
discomforting taken by itself, but, mixed together, they amount in
the aggregate to positive unhappiness.

4   When you have examined the stupendous Horseshoe Fall till
you are satisfied you cannot improve on it, you return to America
by the new Suspension Bridge, and follow up the bank to where
they exhibit the Cave of the Winds.

5    Here I followed instructions, and divested myself of all my
clothing, and put on a waterproof jacket and overalls. This
costume is picturesque, but not beautiful. A guide, similarly
dressed, led the way down a flight of winding stairs, which wound
and wound, and still kept on winding long after the thing ceased
to be a novelty, and then terminated long before it had begun to
be a pleasure. We were then well down under the precipice, but
still considerably above the level of the river.

6    We now began to creep along flimsy bridges of a single plank,
our persons shielded from destruction by a crazy wooden railing,
to which I clung with both hands—not because I was afraid, but
because I wanted to. Presently the descent became steeper and
the bridge flimsier, and sprays from the American Fall began to
rain down on us in fast increasing sheets that soon became
blinding, and after that our progress was mostly in the nature of
groping. Now a furious wind began to rush out from behind the
waterfall, which seemed determined to sweep us from the bridge,
and scatter us on the rocks and among the torrents below. I
remarked that I wanted to go home; but it was too late. We were
almost under the monstrous wall of water thundering down from
above, and speech was in vain in the midst of such a pitiless
crash of sound.

7    In another moment the guide disappeared behind the deluge,
and, bewildered by the thunder, driven helplessly by the wind,
and smitten by the arrowy tempest of rain, I followed. All was
darkness. Such a mad storming, roaring, and bellowing of
warring wind and water never crazed my ears before. I bent my
head, and seemed to receive the Atlantic on my back. The world
seemed going to destruction. I could not see anything, the flood
poured down savagely. I raised my head, with open mouth, and
the most of the American cataract went down my throat. If I had
sprung a leak now I had been lost. And at this moment I
discovered that the bridge had ceased, and we must trust for a
foothold to the slippery and precipitous rocks. I never was so
scared before and survived it. But we got through at last, and
emerged into the open day, where we could stand in front of the
laced and frothy and seething world of descending water, and
look at it. When I saw how much of it there was, and how fearfully
in earnest it was, I was sorry I had gone behind it

Which quotation from the passage stands out in direct contrast to the main theme of the passage?

19 / 23

Questions 16 through 23 refer to the following passage.

Niagara
by Mark Twain

1   Niagara Falls is a most enjoyable place of resort. The hotels
are excellent, and the prices not at all exorbitant. The
opportunities for fishing are not surpassed in the country; in fact,
they are not even equaled elsewhere. Because, in other
localities, certain places in the streams are much better than
others; but at Niagara one place is just as good as another, for
the reason that the fish do not bite anywhere, and so there is no
use in your walking five miles to fish, when you can depend on
being just as unsuccessful nearer home. The advantages of this
state of things have never heretofore been properly placed
before the public.

2   The weather is cool in summer, and the walks and drives are
all pleasant and none of them fatiguing. When you start out to
“do” the Falls you first drive down about a mile, and pay a small
sum for the privilege of looking down from a precipice into the
narrowest part of the Niagara River. A railway “cut” through a hill
would be as comely if it had the angry river tumbling and foaming
through its bottom. You can descend a staircase here a hundred
and fifty feet down, and stand at the edge of the water. After you
have done it, you will wonder why you did it; but you will then be
too late.

3    Then you drive over to Suspension Bridge, and divide your
misery between the chances of smashing down two hundred feet
into the river below, and the chances of having the railway-train
overhead smashing down onto you. Either possibility is
discomforting taken by itself, but, mixed together, they amount in
the aggregate to positive unhappiness.

4   When you have examined the stupendous Horseshoe Fall till
you are satisfied you cannot improve on it, you return to America
by the new Suspension Bridge, and follow up the bank to where
they exhibit the Cave of the Winds.

5    Here I followed instructions, and divested myself of all my
clothing, and put on a waterproof jacket and overalls. This
costume is picturesque, but not beautiful. A guide, similarly
dressed, led the way down a flight of winding stairs, which wound
and wound, and still kept on winding long after the thing ceased
to be a novelty, and then terminated long before it had begun to
be a pleasure. We were then well down under the precipice, but
still considerably above the level of the river.

6    We now began to creep along flimsy bridges of a single plank,
our persons shielded from destruction by a crazy wooden railing,
to which I clung with both hands—not because I was afraid, but
because I wanted to. Presently the descent became steeper and
the bridge flimsier, and sprays from the American Fall began to
rain down on us in fast increasing sheets that soon became
blinding, and after that our progress was mostly in the nature of
groping. Now a furious wind began to rush out from behind the
waterfall, which seemed determined to sweep us from the bridge,
and scatter us on the rocks and among the torrents below. I
remarked that I wanted to go home; but it was too late. We were
almost under the monstrous wall of water thundering down from
above, and speech was in vain in the midst of such a pitiless
crash of sound.

7    In another moment the guide disappeared behind the deluge,
and, bewildered by the thunder, driven helplessly by the wind,
and smitten by the arrowy tempest of rain, I followed. All was
darkness. Such a mad storming, roaring, and bellowing of
warring wind and water never crazed my ears before. I bent my
head, and seemed to receive the Atlantic on my back. The world
seemed going to destruction. I could not see anything, the flood
poured down savagely. I raised my head, with open mouth, and
the most of the American cataract went down my throat. If I had
sprung a leak now I had been lost. And at this moment I
discovered that the bridge had ceased, and we must trust for a
foothold to the slippery and precipitous rocks. I never was so
scared before and survived it. But we got through at last, and
emerged into the open day, where we could stand in front of the
laced and frothy and seething world of descending water, and
look at it. When I saw how much of it there was, and how fearfully
in earnest it was, I was sorry I had gone behind it

In paragraph 6, the narrator says, “I remarked that I wanted to go home.” Which characteristic does this remark reveal about the narrator?

20 / 23

Questions 16 through 23 refer to the following passage.

Niagara
by Mark Twain

1   Niagara Falls is a most enjoyable place of resort. The hotels
are excellent, and the prices not at all exorbitant. The
opportunities for fishing are not surpassed in the country; in fact,
they are not even equaled elsewhere. Because, in other
localities, certain places in the streams are much better than
others; but at Niagara one place is just as good as another, for
the reason that the fish do not bite anywhere, and so there is no
use in your walking five miles to fish, when you can depend on
being just as unsuccessful nearer home. The advantages of this
state of things have never heretofore been properly placed
before the public.

2   The weather is cool in summer, and the walks and drives are
all pleasant and none of them fatiguing. When you start out to
“do” the Falls you first drive down about a mile, and pay a small
sum for the privilege of looking down from a precipice into the
narrowest part of the Niagara River. A railway “cut” through a hill
would be as comely if it had the angry river tumbling and foaming
through its bottom. You can descend a staircase here a hundred
and fifty feet down, and stand at the edge of the water. After you
have done it, you will wonder why you did it; but you will then be
too late.

3    Then you drive over to Suspension Bridge, and divide your
misery between the chances of smashing down two hundred feet
into the river below, and the chances of having the railway-train
overhead smashing down onto you. Either possibility is
discomforting taken by itself, but, mixed together, they amount in
the aggregate to positive unhappiness.

4   When you have examined the stupendous Horseshoe Fall till
you are satisfied you cannot improve on it, you return to America
by the new Suspension Bridge, and follow up the bank to where
they exhibit the Cave of the Winds.

5    Here I followed instructions, and divested myself of all my
clothing, and put on a waterproof jacket and overalls. This
costume is picturesque, but not beautiful. A guide, similarly
dressed, led the way down a flight of winding stairs, which wound
and wound, and still kept on winding long after the thing ceased
to be a novelty, and then terminated long before it had begun to
be a pleasure. We were then well down under the precipice, but
still considerably above the level of the river.

6    We now began to creep along flimsy bridges of a single plank,
our persons shielded from destruction by a crazy wooden railing,
to which I clung with both hands—not because I was afraid, but
because I wanted to. Presently the descent became steeper and
the bridge flimsier, and sprays from the American Fall began to
rain down on us in fast increasing sheets that soon became
blinding, and after that our progress was mostly in the nature of
groping. Now a furious wind began to rush out from behind the
waterfall, which seemed determined to sweep us from the bridge,
and scatter us on the rocks and among the torrents below. I
remarked that I wanted to go home; but it was too late. We were
almost under the monstrous wall of water thundering down from
above, and speech was in vain in the midst of such a pitiless
crash of sound.

7    In another moment the guide disappeared behind the deluge,
and, bewildered by the thunder, driven helplessly by the wind,
and smitten by the arrowy tempest of rain, I followed. All was
darkness. Such a mad storming, roaring, and bellowing of
warring wind and water never crazed my ears before. I bent my
head, and seemed to receive the Atlantic on my back. The world
seemed going to destruction. I could not see anything, the flood
poured down savagely. I raised my head, with open mouth, and
the most of the American cataract went down my throat. If I had
sprung a leak now I had been lost. And at this moment I
discovered that the bridge had ceased, and we must trust for a
foothold to the slippery and precipitous rocks. I never was so
scared before and survived it. But we got through at last, and
emerged into the open day, where we could stand in front of the
laced and frothy and seething world of descending water, and
look at it. When I saw how much of it there was, and how fearfully
in earnest it was, I was sorry I had gone behind it

Read the following sentences from paragraph 7.

Such a mad storming, roaring, and bellowing of warring
wind and water never crazed my ears before. I bent my
head, and seemed to receive the Atlantic on my back.

This detailed description of the author’s surroundings enhances the story by

21 / 23

Questions 16 through 23 refer to the following passage.

Niagara
by Mark Twain

1   Niagara Falls is a most enjoyable place of resort. The hotels
are excellent, and the prices not at all exorbitant. The
opportunities for fishing are not surpassed in the country; in fact,
they are not even equaled elsewhere. Because, in other
localities, certain places in the streams are much better than
others; but at Niagara one place is just as good as another, for
the reason that the fish do not bite anywhere, and so there is no
use in your walking five miles to fish, when you can depend on
being just as unsuccessful nearer home. The advantages of this
state of things have never heretofore been properly placed
before the public.

2   The weather is cool in summer, and the walks and drives are
all pleasant and none of them fatiguing. When you start out to
“do” the Falls you first drive down about a mile, and pay a small
sum for the privilege of looking down from a precipice into the
narrowest part of the Niagara River. A railway “cut” through a hill
would be as comely if it had the angry river tumbling and foaming
through its bottom. You can descend a staircase here a hundred
and fifty feet down, and stand at the edge of the water. After you
have done it, you will wonder why you did it; but you will then be
too late.

3    Then you drive over to Suspension Bridge, and divide your
misery between the chances of smashing down two hundred feet
into the river below, and the chances of having the railway-train
overhead smashing down onto you. Either possibility is
discomforting taken by itself, but, mixed together, they amount in
the aggregate to positive unhappiness.

4   When you have examined the stupendous Horseshoe Fall till
you are satisfied you cannot improve on it, you return to America
by the new Suspension Bridge, and follow up the bank to where
they exhibit the Cave of the Winds.

5    Here I followed instructions, and divested myself of all my
clothing, and put on a waterproof jacket and overalls. This
costume is picturesque, but not beautiful. A guide, similarly
dressed, led the way down a flight of winding stairs, which wound
and wound, and still kept on winding long after the thing ceased
to be a novelty, and then terminated long before it had begun to
be a pleasure. We were then well down under the precipice, but
still considerably above the level of the river.

6    We now began to creep along flimsy bridges of a single plank,
our persons shielded from destruction by a crazy wooden railing,
to which I clung with both hands—not because I was afraid, but
because I wanted to. Presently the descent became steeper and
the bridge flimsier, and sprays from the American Fall began to
rain down on us in fast increasing sheets that soon became
blinding, and after that our progress was mostly in the nature of
groping. Now a furious wind began to rush out from behind the
waterfall, which seemed determined to sweep us from the bridge,
and scatter us on the rocks and among the torrents below. I
remarked that I wanted to go home; but it was too late. We were
almost under the monstrous wall of water thundering down from
above, and speech was in vain in the midst of such a pitiless
crash of sound.

7    In another moment the guide disappeared behind the deluge,
and, bewildered by the thunder, driven helplessly by the wind,
and smitten by the arrowy tempest of rain, I followed. All was
darkness. Such a mad storming, roaring, and bellowing of
warring wind and water never crazed my ears before. I bent my
head, and seemed to receive the Atlantic on my back. The world
seemed going to destruction. I could not see anything, the flood
poured down savagely. I raised my head, with open mouth, and
the most of the American cataract went down my throat. If I had
sprung a leak now I had been lost. And at this moment I
discovered that the bridge had ceased, and we must trust for a
foothold to the slippery and precipitous rocks. I never was so
scared before and survived it. But we got through at last, and
emerged into the open day, where we could stand in front of the
laced and frothy and seething world of descending water, and
look at it. When I saw how much of it there was, and how fearfully
in earnest it was, I was sorry I had gone behind it

Read the following sentences from paragraph 7.

Such a mad storming, roaring, and bellowing of warring
wind and water never crazed my ears before. I bent my
head, and seemed to receive the Atlantic on my back.

Which definition best matches the use of the phrase “in earnest” in paragraph 7?

22 / 23

Questions 16 through 23 refer to the following passage.

Niagara
by Mark Twain

1   Niagara Falls is a most enjoyable place of resort. The hotels
are excellent, and the prices not at all exorbitant. The
opportunities for fishing are not surpassed in the country; in fact,
they are not even equaled elsewhere. Because, in other
localities, certain places in the streams are much better than
others; but at Niagara one place is just as good as another, for
the reason that the fish do not bite anywhere, and so there is no
use in your walking five miles to fish, when you can depend on
being just as unsuccessful nearer home. The advantages of this
state of things have never heretofore been properly placed
before the public.

2   The weather is cool in summer, and the walks and drives are
all pleasant and none of them fatiguing. When you start out to
“do” the Falls you first drive down about a mile, and pay a small
sum for the privilege of looking down from a precipice into the
narrowest part of the Niagara River. A railway “cut” through a hill
would be as comely if it had the angry river tumbling and foaming
through its bottom. You can descend a staircase here a hundred
and fifty feet down, and stand at the edge of the water. After you
have done it, you will wonder why you did it; but you will then be
too late.

3    Then you drive over to Suspension Bridge, and divide your
misery between the chances of smashing down two hundred feet
into the river below, and the chances of having the railway-train
overhead smashing down onto you. Either possibility is
discomforting taken by itself, but, mixed together, they amount in
the aggregate to positive unhappiness.

4   When you have examined the stupendous Horseshoe Fall till
you are satisfied you cannot improve on it, you return to America
by the new Suspension Bridge, and follow up the bank to where
they exhibit the Cave of the Winds.

5    Here I followed instructions, and divested myself of all my
clothing, and put on a waterproof jacket and overalls. This
costume is picturesque, but not beautiful. A guide, similarly
dressed, led the way down a flight of winding stairs, which wound
and wound, and still kept on winding long after the thing ceased
to be a novelty, and then terminated long before it had begun to
be a pleasure. We were then well down under the precipice, but
still considerably above the level of the river.

6    We now began to creep along flimsy bridges of a single plank,
our persons shielded from destruction by a crazy wooden railing,
to which I clung with both hands—not because I was afraid, but
because I wanted to. Presently the descent became steeper and
the bridge flimsier, and sprays from the American Fall began to
rain down on us in fast increasing sheets that soon became
blinding, and after that our progress was mostly in the nature of
groping. Now a furious wind began to rush out from behind the
waterfall, which seemed determined to sweep us from the bridge,
and scatter us on the rocks and among the torrents below. I
remarked that I wanted to go home; but it was too late. We were
almost under the monstrous wall of water thundering down from
above, and speech was in vain in the midst of such a pitiless
crash of sound.

7    In another moment the guide disappeared behind the deluge,
and, bewildered by the thunder, driven helplessly by the wind,
and smitten by the arrowy tempest of rain, I followed. All was
darkness. Such a mad storming, roaring, and bellowing of
warring wind and water never crazed my ears before. I bent my
head, and seemed to receive the Atlantic on my back. The world
seemed going to destruction. I could not see anything, the flood
poured down savagely. I raised my head, with open mouth, and
the most of the American cataract went down my throat. If I had
sprung a leak now I had been lost. And at this moment I
discovered that the bridge had ceased, and we must trust for a
foothold to the slippery and precipitous rocks. I never was so
scared before and survived it. But we got through at last, and
emerged into the open day, where we could stand in front of the
laced and frothy and seething world of descending water, and
look at it. When I saw how much of it there was, and how fearfully
in earnest it was, I was sorry I had gone behind it

Read the following sentences from paragraph 7.

Such a mad storming, roaring, and bellowing of warring
wind and water never crazed my ears before. I bent my
head, and seemed to receive the Atlantic on my back.

Drag and drop the events into the chart to show the order in which they occur in the excerpt. (For this practice test, write the event letters in the chart.)

23 / 23

Questions 16 through 23 refer to the following passage.

Niagara
by Mark Twain

1   Niagara Falls is a most enjoyable place of resort. The hotels
are excellent, and the prices not at all exorbitant. The
opportunities for fishing are not surpassed in the country; in fact,
they are not even equaled elsewhere. Because, in other
localities, certain places in the streams are much better than
others; but at Niagara one place is just as good as another, for
the reason that the fish do not bite anywhere, and so there is no
use in your walking five miles to fish, when you can depend on
being just as unsuccessful nearer home. The advantages of this
state of things have never heretofore been properly placed
before the public.

2   The weather is cool in summer, and the walks and drives are
all pleasant and none of them fatiguing. When you start out to
“do” the Falls you first drive down about a mile, and pay a small
sum for the privilege of looking down from a precipice into the
narrowest part of the Niagara River. A railway “cut” through a hill
would be as comely if it had the angry river tumbling and foaming
through its bottom. You can descend a staircase here a hundred
and fifty feet down, and stand at the edge of the water. After you
have done it, you will wonder why you did it; but you will then be
too late.

3    Then you drive over to Suspension Bridge, and divide your
misery between the chances of smashing down two hundred feet
into the river below, and the chances of having the railway-train
overhead smashing down onto you. Either possibility is
discomforting taken by itself, but, mixed together, they amount in
the aggregate to positive unhappiness.

4   When you have examined the stupendous Horseshoe Fall till
you are satisfied you cannot improve on it, you return to America
by the new Suspension Bridge, and follow up the bank to where
they exhibit the Cave of the Winds.

5    Here I followed instructions, and divested myself of all my
clothing, and put on a waterproof jacket and overalls. This
costume is picturesque, but not beautiful. A guide, similarly
dressed, led the way down a flight of winding stairs, which wound
and wound, and still kept on winding long after the thing ceased
to be a novelty, and then terminated long before it had begun to
be a pleasure. We were then well down under the precipice, but
still considerably above the level of the river.

6    We now began to creep along flimsy bridges of a single plank,
our persons shielded from destruction by a crazy wooden railing,
to which I clung with both hands—not because I was afraid, but
because I wanted to. Presently the descent became steeper and
the bridge flimsier, and sprays from the American Fall began to
rain down on us in fast increasing sheets that soon became
blinding, and after that our progress was mostly in the nature of
groping. Now a furious wind began to rush out from behind the
waterfall, which seemed determined to sweep us from the bridge,
and scatter us on the rocks and among the torrents below. I
remarked that I wanted to go home; but it was too late. We were
almost under the monstrous wall of water thundering down from
above, and speech was in vain in the midst of such a pitiless
crash of sound.

7    In another moment the guide disappeared behind the deluge,
and, bewildered by the thunder, driven helplessly by the wind,
and smitten by the arrowy tempest of rain, I followed. All was
darkness. Such a mad storming, roaring, and bellowing of
warring wind and water never crazed my ears before. I bent my
head, and seemed to receive the Atlantic on my back. The world
seemed going to destruction. I could not see anything, the flood
poured down savagely. I raised my head, with open mouth, and
the most of the American cataract went down my throat. If I had
sprung a leak now I had been lost. And at this moment I
discovered that the bridge had ceased, and we must trust for a
foothold to the slippery and precipitous rocks. I never was so
scared before and survived it. But we got through at last, and
emerged into the open day, where we could stand in front of the
laced and frothy and seething world of descending water, and
look at it. When I saw how much of it there was, and how fearfully
in earnest it was, I was sorry I had gone behind it

Which fact can the reader infer about Niagara Falls?

Your score is

Key Components of the RLA Test

  1. Reading Comprehension: You’ll encounter a variety of texts, including fiction, non-fiction, and workplace documents. You must demonstrate your ability to understand, interpret, and analyze these texts.
  2. Writing and Language: This section tests your knowledge of grammar, punctuation, sentence structure, and usage. You’ll also be required to edit and revise text for clarity and correctness.
  3. Extended Response: The essay requires you to write a coherent, well-organized response to a prompt. You’ll need to support your arguments with evidence and demonstrate a clear understanding of the topic.

Why Take a Practice Test?

Taking a GED Reasoning Through Language Arts practice test is one of the best preparation methods. Here’s why:

  • Identify Weaknesses: Practice tests help you identify areas for improvement, allowing you to focus your study efforts more effectively.
  • Familiarize with the Format: Understanding the test format and the types of questions you’ll encounter can reduce anxiety and improve your test-taking confidence.
  • Improve Time Management: Practice tests help you get a feel for the timing of the actual exam, ensuring you can complete all sections within the allotted time.

Top Tips for Success

  1. Read Regularly: Improve your reading skills by engaging with various texts, including newspapers, magazines, books, and online articles. Pay attention to how arguments are constructed and how evidence is used.
  2. Practice Writing: Write essays regularly and get feedback on your writing. Focus on developing clear, concise, and well-supported arguments.
  3. Review Grammar and Conventions: Brush up on grammar rules, punctuation, and sentence structure. Use online resources and grammar guides to strengthen your understanding.
  4. Take Practice Tests: Use high-quality practice tests to simulate the exam experience. Review your answers and understand your mistakes to avoid repeating them.

Recommended Resources

  • GED Official Practice Test: The GED Testing Service offers official practice tests that mimic the exam. These are highly recommended for their accuracy and relevance.
  • Khan Academy: Offers free online courses covering grammar, writing, and reading comprehension.
  • GED Study Guides: Invest in a comprehensive study guide covering all RLA test sections.

Conclusion

Preparing for the GED Reasoning Through Language Arts test in 2024 doesn’t have to be overwhelming. Understanding the test format, practicing regularly, and using the right resources can boost your confidence and improve your chances of success. Start your preparation today with practice tests and focused study, and you’ll be well on achieving your GED credential.

Good luck with your studies, and remember, persistence and practice are the keys to success!

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